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Virtual walk between gargoyles, medieval vaults and walls.

Researchers at the University of Salamanca generate three-dimensional environments and multimedia of the archaeological heritage of Castilla y León.

Virtual
Seen from impossible perspectives the vaults of the cathedral of Zamora, walk through hidden nooks of the 2,500 battlements of the walls of Ávila or enjoy a bird’s eye view of the Charterhouse of Miraflores in Burgos could become reality thanks to initiatives such as the one developed by the Group of Information Technologies for the Heritage Documentation at the University of Salamanca (TIDOP). The researchers team, led by Professor Diego González Aguilera, works to spread the Architectural and Archaeological Heritage of Castilla y León through the generation of virtual reality environments with multimedia content.
New technologies have been crucial in overcoming architectural, geographical and time barriers for people in general, especially for those who have some type of disability. To date there have been many and varied performances from TIDOP group to eliminate these limitations. His works reconstruction of the walls of Ávila or the hermitage of San Benito Abad (Navarredonda de Gredos) are remarkable, besides the virtual three-dimensional interactive graphics recreation of the roman city of Clunia and many vetone castros, places of cultural interest whose location in inaccessible places preclude their visit.

There are numerous his technical support to public entities such as the “council and the local government of Ávila”, in the context of archaeological research conditioned by reasons of urban planning and construction that after the field work will be covered again. Thanks to his digital documentation techniques have safeguarded the three dimensional configuration of sites such as the medieval tanneries of Ávila or the roman Town of San Pedro del Arroyo. Digital reconstructions of these spaces have allowed archaeologists and historians to have metric documentation for virtually recreate and preserve their spatial geometry, thus overcoming the time barrier.

The photogrammetric technologies associated with information and communication technologies allowed to advance in the overcoming spatial barriers. One of them, imposed on each of us as a result of our stature, is the immovable point of view with which we can see everything. Fact that limits the knowledge and enjoyment of cultural goods and makes always consider from the same perspective. This ‘handicap’ was mitigated by actions such as those undertaken by researchers at the University in virtual reconstructions developed under the exhibition “Las dos Orillas”, commemorating the fifth anniversary of the death of Christopher Columbus, and the work focused in the chapel of Our Lady of Sonsoles or St. Nicholas Church. Jobs that concluded in interactive graphic products in which the user can vary the point of view virtually placing it in a bird’s eye view and enjoy unreachable areas and details with a naked eye.

The solutions of the TIDOP Group also have been required by administrations forced to take stringent conservation measures in some heritage assets restricting and even forbidding access to them. An example is the metric documentation developed in the caves of the Asturian Paleolithic of “Calda” and “Peña de Candamo”, which has allowed the virtual recreation with a high degree of detail of the volumes of the walls. Recreations that then were disseminated through publications and international conferences for knowledge of the scientific community.

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Análisis termográfico de edificios

 

El uso de la termografía infrarroja comMapaEnergeticoo técnica sobradamente provada para la inspección de edificios y localización de patologías como fugas de aire, humedades, etc. Nos permite realizar un examen visual “in-situ” de calidad de los objetos de estudio gracias a la posibilidad de visualizar en tiempo real los resultados pudiendo detectar sin dificultad los desperfectos o elementos característicos de estos. Estas técnicas de medición cualitativa nos proporcionan la posibilidad de realizar inspecciones rápidas y eficaces sin contacto directo con el objeto y de forma no destructiva, lo que disminuye tanto el riesgo de incidentes para los operarios como los daños producidos en los propios objetos de estudio ocasionados por otras técnicas intrusivas. Además, también se ha demostrado la utilidad de la termografía infrarroja como técnica puramente de medida a través de su utilización para el cálculo de propiedades termofísicas de materiales tales como difusividad y transmitancia térmica.

En el caso de termografía cualitativa, las publicaciones existentes tratan de estudios realizados in-situ, principalmente en edificios históricos o elementos del patrimonio cultural, mientras que los estudios cualitativos se realizan, en la mayor parte de los casos, en laboratorios sobre muestras de tamaño limitado. En aquellos casos en los que se han realizado estudios termográficos cuantitativos sobre edificios in-situ, los valores de temperatura son empleados con el objetivo de obtener propiedades termofísicas (conductancia térmica) reales del cerramiento, sin embargo su distribución espacial no es considerada.

Conjugar ambas aplicaciones permitirá la automatización del cálculo de pérdidas de calor a partir de las temperaturas medidas con una cámara termográfica. De este modo, no solo se usa la termografía para representar el estado de la pared, sino que también se usan los valores de temperatura contenidos en la termografía para la extracción de parámetros métricos del edificio en estudio, por lo que la hibridación de la información termográfica con el material cartográfico de precisión permitiría extraer la geometría real del objeto de estudio con textura termográfica, pudiendo así realizar mediciones precisas de los elementos de interés directamente sobre el resultado obtenido.

 

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Estudios como el publicado por EuroACE en 2010 colocan la mejora de la eficiencia energética en edificación en cabeza de las acciones necesarias para la reducción de emisiones de gases del efecto invernadero y gasto energético, así como para servir de empuje a la generación de empleo. Especial es el caso del parque de edificios ya construidos, la mayoría procedente de los años 1940-80, con normativa inexistente y recursos escasos. En ellos las obras de rehabilitación energética pueden suponer un ahorro de hasta el 75% en consumo de energía. En España existen 13 millones de viviendas susceptibles de intervención, cuya rehabilitación energética supondría una reducción de las emisiones del sector del 34% con respecto al año 2001.

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Building thermographic analysis

 

 

The use of infraMapaEnergeticored thermography as a widely tested technique for building inspection and location of pathologies such as air leakage and moisture allows the performance of  quality “in-situ” visual examination of the objects under study due to the possibility of obtaining real-time results, being able to detect without difficulty damages or material characteristics. This qualitative measurement technique provides the capability of doing quick, effective and non-destructive inspection without direct contact with the object under study, decreasing the risk of incidents to operators and the damage of the objects comparing with other intrusive techniques. Furthermore, the utility of infrared thermography as a measurement technique has been proved by its use for the determination of the thermophysical properties of materials such as diffusivity and thermal transmittance.

In the qualitative approach, some authors have performed in-situ studies, mainly in historical buildings or cultural heritage elements, whereas quantitative studies are performed mainly in laboratories with limited size samples. In those cases where quantitative thermography studies were performed in-situ, temperature values were employed in order to obtain the real thermophysical properties (thermal conductance) of the building envelope, but their spatial distribution is not considered.

Combine both applications will enable the automation of the heat loss computation from the measured temperatures with a thermographic camera. Thus, the thermography is not only used to represent the state of the wall, but also temperature values represented on the thermography for extracting the metric parameters of the study object so the hybridization of the thermographic information with precise cartographic material would  allow to extract the actual geometry of the object of study with thermal texture, being able to make accurate measurements of the elements of interest directly on the obtained results.

 

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Studies such as the one published by EuroACE in 2010, places improved energy efficiency in building construction at the top of the list of actions that need to be taken to reduce greenhouse gases and energy costs, in addition to acting as a stimulus to generate employment. In particular is the case of existing buildings stock, most of which dates back to the period 1940-80, constructed using non-existent standards and scarce resources. Here, energy refurbishment works could represent a saving of up to 75% in energy consumption. In Spain there are 13 million homes that could be the subject of intervention, where energy refurbishment could result in a reduction in sector emissions of 34% compared to 2001.

 

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Mobile Laser System (MLS) applied to urban tree inventory

In urbanized Western Europe trees are considered an important component of the built-up environment. This also means that there is an increasing demand for tree inventories. Laser mobile mapping systems provide an efficient and accurate way to sample the 3D road surrounding including notable roadside trees. In this research line, a processing chain aiming at the extraction of tree locations and tree sizes from laser mobile mapping data is reached.

 

  • Vegetation extraction

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  • Tree parameter extraction

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Such steps, in combination with code optimization are expected to be sufficient to reach the final goal of automatized estimation of features sampled by mobile mapping at a rate that matches the acquisition speed and at a quality that matches the result of a human operator.

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