Research Lines


The Geomatic Technologies for the 3D digitalization and modelling of complex objetcs (TIDOP) research group was created on 2005 and belongs to the Land and Cartographic Engineering Department of the University of Salamanca (one of the oldest universities in Europe and an academic point of reference throughout its almost 800 years of existence).

The Geomatic Technologies for the 3D digitalization and modelling of complex objetcs (TIDOP) research group was created on 2005 and belongs to the Land and Cartographic Engineering Department of the University of Salamanca (one of the oldest universities in Europe and an academic point of reference throughout its almost 800 years of existence).This recognized research group is characterized by multi-disciplinary members with diverse profiles: geomatics, computer scientist, industrial engineers, civil engineers and architects devoted to the development and application of intelligent sensors and computer systems to engineering and architecture applications. One of the main streams of this group is the transfer of technology with more than 10 patents and intellectual properties.In the last years, the researchers have focused majority of the efforts on the development of algorithms and tools for modelling the world in 3D at scale only using photographs or points clouds. They have been awarded with several international and nationals prizes. As a result, TIDOP research unit works on more than ten projects in collaboration with leading companies in these industries and other issues related to aerospatial systems, energy, security, transport and road inventory and maintenance.The Geomatic Technologies for the 3D digitalization and modelling of complex objetcs (TIDOP) research group was created on 2005 and belongs to the Land and Cartographic Engineering Department of the University of Salamanca (one of the oldest universities in Europe and an academic point of reference throughout its almost 800 years of existence).This recognized research group is characterized by multi-disciplinary members with diverse profiles: geomatics, computer scientist, industrial engineers, civil engineers and architects devoted to the development and application of intelligent sensors and computer systems to engineering and architecture applications. One of the main streams of this group is the transfer of technology with more than 10 patents and intellectual properties.In the last years, the researchers have focused majority of the efforts on the development of algorithms and tools for modelling the world in 3D at scale only using photographs or points clouds. They have been awarded with several international and nationals prizes. As a result, TIDOP research unit works on more than ten projects in collaboration with leading companies in these industries and other issues related to aerospatial systems, energy, security, transport and road inventory and maintenance.

Research Line


The Geomatic Technologies for the 3D digitalization and modelling of complex objetcs (TIDOP) research group was created on 2005 and belongs to the Land and Cartographic Engineering Department of the University of Salamanca (one of the oldest universities in Europe and an academic point of reference throughout its almost 800 years of existence).

Research Line

Research Line


The Geomatic Technologies for the 3D digitalization and modelling of complex objetcs (TIDOP) research group was created on 2005 and belongs to the Land and Cartographic Engineering Department of the University of Salamanca (one of the oldest universities in Europe and an academic point of reference throughout its almost 800 years of existence).

Research Line

Research Line


The Geomatic Technologies for the 3D digitalization and modelling of complex objetcs (TIDOP) research group was created on 2005 and belongs to the Land and Cartographic Engineering Department of the University of Salamanca (one of the oldest universities in Europe and an academic point of reference throughout its almost 800 years of existence).

The Geomatic Technologies for the 3D digitalization and modelling of complex objetcs (TIDOP) research group was created on 2005 and belongs to the Land and Cartographic Engineering Department of the University of Salamanca (one of the oldest universities in Europe and an academic point of reference throughout its almost 800 years of existence).This recognized research group is characterized by multi-disciplinary members with diverse profiles: geomatics, computer scientist, industrial engineers, civil engineers and architects devoted to the development and application of intelligent sensors and computer systems to engineering and architecture applications. One of the main streams of this group is the transfer of technology with more than 10 patents and intellectual properties.In the last years, the researchers have focused majority of the efforts on the development of algorithms and tools for modelling the world in 3D at scale only using photographs or points clouds. They have been awarded with several international and nationals prizes. As a result, TIDOP research unit works on more than ten projects in collaboration with leading companies in these industries and other issues related to aerospatial systems, energy, security, transport and road inventory and maintenance.The Geomatic Technologies for the 3D digitalization and modelling of complex objetcs (TIDOP) research group was created on 2005 and belongs to the Land and Cartographic Engineering Department of the University of Salamanca (one of the oldest universities in Europe and an academic point of reference throughout its almost 800 years of existence).This recognized research group is characterized by multi-disciplinary members with diverse profiles: geomatics, computer scientist, industrial engineers, civil engineers and architects devoted to the development and application of intelligent sensors and computer systems to engineering and architecture applications. One of the main streams of this group is the transfer of technology with more than 10 patents and intellectual properties.In the last years, the researchers have focused majority of the efforts on the development of algorithms and tools for modelling the world in 3D at scale only using photographs or points clouds. They have been awarded with several international and nationals prizes. As a result, TIDOP research unit works on more than ten projects in collaboration with leading companies in these industries and other issues related to aerospatial systems, energy, security, transport and road inventory and maintenance.

Research Line


The Geomatic Technologies for the 3D digitalization and modelling of complex objetcs (TIDOP) research group was created on 2005 and belongs to the Land and Cartographic Engineering Department of the University of Salamanca (one of the oldest universities in Europe and an academic point of reference throughout its almost 800 years of existence).

Research Line

Research Line


The Geomatic Technologies for the 3D digitalization and modelling of complex objetcs (TIDOP) research group was created on 2005 and belongs to the Land and Cartographic Engineering Department of the University of Salamanca (one of the oldest universities in Europe and an academic point of reference throughout its almost 800 years of existence).

Research Line

Research Line


The Geomatic Technologies for the 3D digitalization and modelling of complex objetcs (TIDOP) research group was created on 2005 and belongs to the Land and Cartographic Engineering Department of the University of Salamanca (one of the oldest universities in Europe and an academic point of reference throughout its almost 800 years of existence).

The Geomatic Technologies for the 3D digitalization and modelling of complex objetcs (TIDOP) research group was created on 2005 and belongs to the Land and Cartographic Engineering Department of the University of Salamanca (one of the oldest universities in Europe and an academic point of reference throughout its almost 800 years of existence).This recognized research group is characterized by multi-disciplinary members with diverse profiles: geomatics, computer scientist, industrial engineers, civil engineers and architects devoted to the development and application of intelligent sensors and computer systems to engineering and architecture applications. One of the main streams of this group is the transfer of technology with more than 10 patents and intellectual properties.In the last years, the researchers have focused majority of the efforts on the development of algorithms and tools for modelling the world in 3D at scale only using photographs or points clouds. They have been awarded with several international and nationals prizes. As a result, TIDOP research unit works on more than ten projects in collaboration with leading companies in these industries and other issues related to aerospatial systems, energy, security, transport and road inventory and maintenance.The Geomatic Technologies for the 3D digitalization and modelling of complex objetcs (TIDOP) research group was created on 2005 and belongs to the Land and Cartographic Engineering Department of the University of Salamanca (one of the oldest universities in Europe and an academic point of reference throughout its almost 800 years of existence).This recognized research group is characterized by multi-disciplinary members with diverse profiles: geomatics, computer scientist, industrial engineers, civil engineers and architects devoted to the development and application of intelligent sensors and computer systems to engineering and architecture applications. One of the main streams of this group is the transfer of technology with more than 10 patents and intellectual properties.In the last years, the researchers have focused majority of the efforts on the development of algorithms and tools for modelling the world in 3D at scale only using photographs or points clouds. They have been awarded with several international and nationals prizes. As a result, TIDOP research unit works on more than ten projects in collaboration with leading companies in these industries and other issues related to aerospatial systems, energy, security, transport and road inventory and maintenance.

Research Line


The Geomatic Technologies for the 3D digitalization and modelling of complex objetcs (TIDOP) research group was created on 2005 and belongs to the Land and Cartographic Engineering Department of the University of Salamanca (one of the oldest universities in Europe and an academic point of reference throughout its almost 800 years of existence).

Research Line

Research Line


The Geomatic Technologies for the 3D digitalization and modelling of complex objetcs (TIDOP) research group was created on 2005 and belongs to the Land and Cartographic Engineering Department of the University of Salamanca (one of the oldest universities in Europe and an academic point of reference throughout its almost 800 years of existence).

Research Line

Research Line


The Geomatic Technologies for the 3D digitalization and modelling of complex objetcs (TIDOP) research group was created on 2005 and belongs to the Land and Cartographic Engineering Department of the University of Salamanca (one of the oldest universities in Europe and an academic point of reference throughout its almost 800 years of existence).

The Geomatic Technologies for the 3D digitalization and modelling of complex objetcs (TIDOP) research group was created on 2005 and belongs to the Land and Cartographic Engineering Department of the University of Salamanca (one of the oldest universities in Europe and an academic point of reference throughout its almost 800 years of existence).This recognized research group is characterized by multi-disciplinary members with diverse profiles: geomatics, computer scientist, industrial engineers, civil engineers and architects devoted to the development and application of intelligent sensors and computer systems to engineering and architecture applications. One of the main streams of this group is the transfer of technology with more than 10 patents and intellectual properties.In the last years, the researchers have focused majority of the efforts on the development of algorithms and tools for modelling the world in 3D at scale only using photographs or points clouds. They have been awarded with several international and nationals prizes. As a result, TIDOP research unit works on more than ten projects in collaboration with leading companies in these industries and other issues related to aerospatial systems, energy, security, transport and road inventory and maintenance.The Geomatic Technologies for the 3D digitalization and modelling of complex objetcs (TIDOP) research group was created on 2005 and belongs to the Land and Cartographic Engineering Department of the University of Salamanca (one of the oldest universities in Europe and an academic point of reference throughout its almost 800 years of existence).This recognized research group is characterized by multi-disciplinary members with diverse profiles: geomatics, computer scientist, industrial engineers, civil engineers and architects devoted to the development and application of intelligent sensors and computer systems to engineering and architecture applications. One of the main streams of this group is the transfer of technology with more than 10 patents and intellectual properties.In the last years, the researchers have focused majority of the efforts on the development of algorithms and tools for modelling the world in 3D at scale only using photographs or points clouds. They have been awarded with several international and nationals prizes. As a result, TIDOP research unit works on more than ten projects in collaboration with leading companies in these industries and other issues related to aerospatial systems, energy, security, transport and road inventory and maintenance.

Research Line


The Geomatic Technologies for the 3D digitalization and modelling of complex objetcs (TIDOP) research group was created on 2005 and belongs to the Land and Cartographic Engineering Department of the University of Salamanca (one of the oldest universities in Europe and an academic point of reference throughout its almost 800 years of existence).

Research Line

Research Line


The Geomatic Technologies for the 3D digitalization and modelling of complex objetcs (TIDOP) research group was created on 2005 and belongs to the Land and Cartographic Engineering Department of the University of Salamanca (one of the oldest universities in Europe and an academic point of reference throughout its almost 800 years of existence).

Research Line

Research Line


The Geomatic Technologies for the 3D digitalization and modelling of complex objetcs (TIDOP) research group was created on 2005 and belongs to the Land and Cartographic Engineering Department of the University of Salamanca (one of the oldest universities in Europe and an academic point of reference throughout its almost 800 years of existence).

The Geomatic Technologies for the 3D digitalization and modelling of complex objetcs (TIDOP) research group was created on 2005 and belongs to the Land and Cartographic Engineering Department of the University of Salamanca (one of the oldest universities in Europe and an academic point of reference throughout its almost 800 years of existence).This recognized research group is characterized by multi-disciplinary members with diverse profiles: geomatics, computer scientist, industrial engineers, civil engineers and architects devoted to the development and application of intelligent sensors and computer systems to engineering and architecture applications. One of the main streams of this group is the transfer of technology with more than 10 patents and intellectual properties.In the last years, the researchers have focused majority of the efforts on the development of algorithms and tools for modelling the world in 3D at scale only using photographs or points clouds. They have been awarded with several international and nationals prizes. As a result, TIDOP research unit works on more than ten projects in collaboration with leading companies in these industries and other issues related to aerospatial systems, energy, security, transport and road inventory and maintenance.The Geomatic Technologies for the 3D digitalization and modelling of complex objetcs (TIDOP) research group was created on 2005 and belongs to the Land and Cartographic Engineering Department of the University of Salamanca (one of the oldest universities in Europe and an academic point of reference throughout its almost 800 years of existence).This recognized research group is characterized by multi-disciplinary members with diverse profiles: geomatics, computer scientist, industrial engineers, civil engineers and architects devoted to the development and application of intelligent sensors and computer systems to engineering and architecture applications. One of the main streams of this group is the transfer of technology with more than 10 patents and intellectual properties.In the last years, the researchers have focused majority of the efforts on the development of algorithms and tools for modelling the world in 3D at scale only using photographs or points clouds. They have been awarded with several international and nationals prizes. As a result, TIDOP research unit works on more than ten projects in collaboration with leading companies in these industries and other issues related to aerospatial systems, energy, security, transport and road inventory and maintenance.

Research Line


The Geomatic Technologies for the 3D digitalization and modelling of complex objetcs (TIDOP) research group was created on 2005 and belongs to the Land and Cartographic Engineering Department of the University of Salamanca (one of the oldest universities in Europe and an academic point of reference throughout its almost 800 years of existence).

Research Line

Research Line


The Geomatic Technologies for the 3D digitalization and modelling of complex objetcs (TIDOP) research group was created on 2005 and belongs to the Land and Cartographic Engineering Department of the University of Salamanca (one of the oldest universities in Europe and an academic point of reference throughout its almost 800 years of existence).

Research Line

Research Line


The Geomatic Technologies for the 3D digitalization and modelling of complex objetcs (TIDOP) research group was created on 2005 and belongs to the Land and Cartographic Engineering Department of the University of Salamanca (one of the oldest universities in Europe and an academic point of reference throughout its almost 800 years of existence).

The Geomatic Technologies for the 3D digitalization and modelling of complex objetcs (TIDOP) research group was created on 2005 and belongs to the Land and Cartographic Engineering Department of the University of Salamanca (one of the oldest universities in Europe and an academic point of reference throughout its almost 800 years of existence).This recognized research group is characterized by multi-disciplinary members with diverse profiles: geomatics, computer scientist, industrial engineers, civil engineers and architects devoted to the development and application of intelligent sensors and computer systems to engineering and architecture applications. One of the main streams of this group is the transfer of technology with more than 10 patents and intellectual properties.In the last years, the researchers have focused majority of the efforts on the development of algorithms and tools for modelling the world in 3D at scale only using photographs or points clouds. They have been awarded with several international and nationals prizes. As a result, TIDOP research unit works on more than ten projects in collaboration with leading companies in these industries and other issues related to aerospatial systems, energy, security, transport and road inventory and maintenance.The Geomatic Technologies for the 3D digitalization and modelling of complex objetcs (TIDOP) research group was created on 2005 and belongs to the Land and Cartographic Engineering Department of the University of Salamanca (one of the oldest universities in Europe and an academic point of reference throughout its almost 800 years of existence).This recognized research group is characterized by multi-disciplinary members with diverse profiles: geomatics, computer scientist, industrial engineers, civil engineers and architects devoted to the development and application of intelligent sensors and computer systems to engineering and architecture applications. One of the main streams of this group is the transfer of technology with more than 10 patents and intellectual properties.In the last years, the researchers have focused majority of the efforts on the development of algorithms and tools for modelling the world in 3D at scale only using photographs or points clouds. They have been awarded with several international and nationals prizes. As a result, TIDOP research unit works on more than ten projects in collaboration with leading companies in these industries and other issues related to aerospatial systems, energy, security, transport and road inventory and maintenance.

Research Line


The Geomatic Technologies for the 3D digitalization and modelling of complex objetcs (TIDOP) research group was created on 2005 and belongs to the Land and Cartographic Engineering Department of the University of Salamanca (one of the oldest universities in Europe and an academic point of reference throughout its almost 800 years of existence).

Research Line

Research Line


The Geomatic Technologies for the 3D digitalization and modelling of complex objetcs (TIDOP) research group was created on 2005 and belongs to the Land and Cartographic Engineering Department of the University of Salamanca (one of the oldest universities in Europe and an academic point of reference throughout its almost 800 years of existence).

Research Line

Research Line


The Geomatic Technologies for the 3D digitalization and modelling of complex objetcs (TIDOP) research group was created on 2005 and belongs to the Land and Cartographic Engineering Department of the University of Salamanca (one of the oldest universities in Europe and an academic point of reference throughout its almost 800 years of existence).

The Geomatic Technologies for the 3D digitalization and modelling of complex objetcs (TIDOP) research group was created on 2005 and belongs to the Land and Cartographic Engineering Department of the University of Salamanca (one of the oldest universities in Europe and an academic point of reference throughout its almost 800 years of existence).This recognized research group is characterized by multi-disciplinary members with diverse profiles: geomatics, computer scientist, industrial engineers, civil engineers and architects devoted to the development and application of intelligent sensors and computer systems to engineering and architecture applications. One of the main streams of this group is the transfer of technology with more than 10 patents and intellectual properties.In the last years, the researchers have focused majority of the efforts on the development of algorithms and tools for modelling the world in 3D at scale only using photographs or points clouds. They have been awarded with several international and nationals prizes. As a result, TIDOP research unit works on more than ten projects in collaboration with leading companies in these industries and other issues related to aerospatial systems, energy, security, transport and road inventory and maintenance.The Geomatic Technologies for the 3D digitalization and modelling of complex objetcs (TIDOP) research group was created on 2005 and belongs to the Land and Cartographic Engineering Department of the University of Salamanca (one of the oldest universities in Europe and an academic point of reference throughout its almost 800 years of existence).This recognized research group is characterized by multi-disciplinary members with diverse profiles: geomatics, computer scientist, industrial engineers, civil engineers and architects devoted to the development and application of intelligent sensors and computer systems to engineering and architecture applications. One of the main streams of this group is the transfer of technology with more than 10 patents and intellectual properties.In the last years, the researchers have focused majority of the efforts on the development of algorithms and tools for modelling the world in 3D at scale only using photographs or points clouds. They have been awarded with several international and nationals prizes. As a result, TIDOP research unit works on more than ten projects in collaboration with leading companies in these industries and other issues related to aerospatial systems, energy, security, transport and road inventory and maintenance.

Research Line


The Geomatic Technologies for the 3D digitalization and modelling of complex objetcs (TIDOP) research group was created on 2005 and belongs to the Land and Cartographic Engineering Department of the University of Salamanca (one of the oldest universities in Europe and an academic point of reference throughout its almost 800 years of existence).

Research Line

Research Line

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Análisis termográfico de edificios

 

El uso de la termografía infrarroja comMapaEnergeticoo técnica sobradamente provada para la inspección de edificios y localización de patologías como fugas de aire, humedades, etc. Nos permite realizar un examen visual “in-situ” de calidad de los objetos de estudio gracias a la posibilidad de visualizar en tiempo real los resultados pudiendo detectar sin dificultad los desperfectos o elementos característicos de estos. Estas técnicas de medición cualitativa nos proporcionan la posibilidad de realizar inspecciones rápidas y eficaces sin contacto directo con el objeto y de forma no destructiva, lo que disminuye tanto el riesgo de incidentes para los operarios como los daños producidos en los propios objetos de estudio ocasionados por otras técnicas intrusivas. Además, también se ha demostrado la utilidad de la termografía infrarroja como técnica puramente de medida a través de su utilización para el cálculo de propiedades termofísicas de materiales tales como difusividad y transmitancia térmica.

En el caso de termografía cualitativa, las publicaciones existentes tratan de estudios realizados in-situ, principalmente en edificios históricos o elementos del patrimonio cultural, mientras que los estudios cualitativos se realizan, en la mayor parte de los casos, en laboratorios sobre muestras de tamaño limitado. En aquellos casos en los que se han realizado estudios termográficos cuantitativos sobre edificios in-situ, los valores de temperatura son empleados con el objetivo de obtener propiedades termofísicas (conductancia térmica) reales del cerramiento, sin embargo su distribución espacial no es considerada.

Conjugar ambas aplicaciones permitirá la automatización del cálculo de pérdidas de calor a partir de las temperaturas medidas con una cámara termográfica. De este modo, no solo se usa la termografía para representar el estado de la pared, sino que también se usan los valores de temperatura contenidos en la termografía para la extracción de parámetros métricos del edificio en estudio, por lo que la hibridación de la información termográfica con el material cartográfico de precisión permitiría extraer la geometría real del objeto de estudio con textura termográfica, pudiendo así realizar mediciones precisas de los elementos de interés directamente sobre el resultado obtenido.

 

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Estudios como el publicado por EuroACE en 2010 colocan la mejora de la eficiencia energética en edificación en cabeza de las acciones necesarias para la reducción de emisiones de gases del efecto invernadero y gasto energético, así como para servir de empuje a la generación de empleo. Especial es el caso del parque de edificios ya construidos, la mayoría procedente de los años 1940-80, con normativa inexistente y recursos escasos. En ellos las obras de rehabilitación energética pueden suponer un ahorro de hasta el 75% en consumo de energía. En España existen 13 millones de viviendas susceptibles de intervención, cuya rehabilitación energética supondría una reducción de las emisiones del sector del 34% con respecto al año 2001.

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Building thermographic analysis

 

 

The use of infraMapaEnergeticored thermography as a widely tested technique for building inspection and location of pathologies such as air leakage and moisture allows the performance of  quality “in-situ” visual examination of the objects under study due to the possibility of obtaining real-time results, being able to detect without difficulty damages or material characteristics. This qualitative measurement technique provides the capability of doing quick, effective and non-destructive inspection without direct contact with the object under study, decreasing the risk of incidents to operators and the damage of the objects comparing with other intrusive techniques. Furthermore, the utility of infrared thermography as a measurement technique has been proved by its use for the determination of the thermophysical properties of materials such as diffusivity and thermal transmittance.

In the qualitative approach, some authors have performed in-situ studies, mainly in historical buildings or cultural heritage elements, whereas quantitative studies are performed mainly in laboratories with limited size samples. In those cases where quantitative thermography studies were performed in-situ, temperature values were employed in order to obtain the real thermophysical properties (thermal conductance) of the building envelope, but their spatial distribution is not considered.

Combine both applications will enable the automation of the heat loss computation from the measured temperatures with a thermographic camera. Thus, the thermography is not only used to represent the state of the wall, but also temperature values represented on the thermography for extracting the metric parameters of the study object so the hybridization of the thermographic information with precise cartographic material would  allow to extract the actual geometry of the object of study with thermal texture, being able to make accurate measurements of the elements of interest directly on the obtained results.

 

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Studies such as the one published by EuroACE in 2010, places improved energy efficiency in building construction at the top of the list of actions that need to be taken to reduce greenhouse gases and energy costs, in addition to acting as a stimulus to generate employment. In particular is the case of existing buildings stock, most of which dates back to the period 1940-80, constructed using non-existent standards and scarce resources. Here, energy refurbishment works could represent a saving of up to 75% in energy consumption. In Spain there are 13 million homes that could be the subject of intervention, where energy refurbishment could result in a reduction in sector emissions of 34% compared to 2001.

 

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Geotechnologies applied to 3D modeling in forensic infography.

03The study of three-dimensional reconstruction of scenes and objects for further analysis is a subject that has always been and will be extensively investigated in different disciplines. One of the disciplines in which obtaining 3D models becomes necessary is in forensic engineering, and more specifically in the field of infography.

The great advantage offered by laser and photogrammetric geotecnologies for modeling complex scenarios in forensic infography is that they are non-invasive and non-destructive techniques. That is to way, therethrough will be documentary evidence of the signs and evidences existing on the stage, unchanged at any time their spatial positions or physical properties, in addition to providing rigor, thoroughness and realism to the reconstruction of the event.

The overall objective of this research is the methodological study and validity of the application of low-cost laser (Gaming Sensor e Indoor Mapping) and photogrammetric (Conventional Digital Camera, Smartphones) geotechnologies in forensic scenes.

Following the methodological development for achieving the objectives, It has been shown that the application of various geotechnologies such as close range photogrammetry, computer visión, gaming sensors and terrestrial laser scanner devices, are very suitable in the visual inspection of the crime and ist subsequent three-dimensional graphic representation.

 

 

 

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Geotechnologies applied to 3D modeling in forensic infography.

03The study of three-dimensional reconstruction of scenes and objects for further analysis is a subject that has always been and will be extensively investigated in different disciplines. One of the disciplines in which obtaining 3D models becomes necessary is in forensic engineering, and more specifically in the field of infography.

The great advantage offered by laser and photogrammetric geotecnologies for modeling complex scenarios in forensic infography is that they are non-invasive and non-destructive techniques. That is to way, therethrough will be documentary evidence of the signs and evidences existing on the stage, unchanged at any time their spatial positions or physical properties, in addition to providing rigor, thoroughness and realism to the reconstruction of the event.

The overall objective of this research is the methodological study and validity of the application of low-cost laser (Gaming Sensor e Indoor Mapping) and photogrammetric (Conventional Digital Camera, Smartphones) geotechnologies in forensic scenes.

Following the methodological development for achieving the objectives, It has been shown that the application of various geotechnologies such as close range photogrammetry, computer visión, gaming sensors and terrestrial laser scanner devices, are very suitable in the visual inspection of the crime and ist subsequent three-dimensional graphic representation.

 

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Virtual Reality

Realidad_VirtVirtual Reality is a science based on the use of computers and other devices, designed to produce an appearance of reality or simulation that allows the user to have the feeling of being present in it. The virtual reality is based in some images generated for computer and uses a device to visualize it . Some of these artifacts can be placed in a helmet, goggles (glasses) and even made ​​up suits and gloves equipped with sensors designed to simulate the perception of different stimuli that intensify the same sense of reality equipment.

In our research group we have generated virtual reality systems using the Unity game engine, the Oculus Rift and range sensors. Range sensors create systems to generate touch-less motion.

 

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Vineyard yield estimation

The research line entitled “Vineyard yield estimation” is focused on the analysis of vineyards through the use of non-invasive methods at different scales:

Small-scale

Through the use of the photogrammetry and the computer vision. This approach allows the creation of an accurate 3d model of the bunch, enabling the evaluation of the vineyard production as well as the size of the grapes.

 

Uvas-2

  

 

Large-scale

In this scale the geotechnology used is the Mobile Mapping System. This device allows the reconstruction of the entire vineyard. This reconstruction is used to estimate its production and the distribution of the grapes.

 

 

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Three-dimensional modeling in road accidents

escena accidente completaCurrently, three-dimensional reconstruction of scenes and objects are being applied to several fields, and one of them is traffic accidents, where obtaining 3D models is important to investigate and demonstrate the causes of the event.

The investigation of traffic accidents is much work to improve vehicle safety and act on other factors involved in traffic safety, such as the design and construction of roads.

Through the use of photogrammetry and laser scanner for the 3D modelling of traffic accidents will be written evidence of signs and evidence at the scene of the incident, without altering any time their spatial positions and their physical properties, providing rigor, integrity and accuracy in the reconstruction of the event.

With the application of these technologies optimum recording all necessary data from complete, objective, accurate, noninvasive and digitally storable for subsequent reconstruction and analysis were achieved.

 

Golpe furgo_mapa elevaciones

Note that the results are 3D models with centimeter accuracy, allowing us to determine distances in any direction in space and measure angles and surfaces. It is also possible to obtain deformation models from overlapping vehicle models before and after the accident in order to accurately check upon impact deformations undergone by quantifying the amount of deformation in terms of penetration depth.

 

 

 

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Object recognition and augmented reality

ReconociminetoObject detection is a computer classical technology related to computer vision and image processing that deals with detecting instances of semantic objects. The recognition of traditional objects in computer vision is the task to find and identify objects in an image or video sequence. With the release of the game sensors, devices range from low cost, has taken a further step in the recognition. Using these devices generate 3D point cloud recognition is performed on these point clouds, I reach impossible goals in the classic object detection technology.

 

 

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Augmented reality (AR) is the term used to define a vision through a technological device directly or indirectly, of a physical real-world environment whose elements are combined with virtual elements to create a mixed reality real time. It consists of a set of devices that add virtual information to the existing physical information, i.e. adding a synthetic virtual reality part. This is the main difference with virtual reality, since it does not replace the physical reality, but superimposes computer data to the real world.

Combined with the research line object recognition allows us to generate augmented reality systems that recognize an object, you indicate your position through augmented reality.

 

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Ventana modal ingles
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Ventana modal español
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Radiometric Analysis of multiespectral images

inglesMultispectral sensors are considered powerful tools for detailed spatial and temporal studies addressing spectral signatures, opening a broad range of applications in remote sensing field. A key step in this process is the knowledge of multi-spectral sensor calibration parameters (c0 and c1, offset and gain) in order to identify the physical variables collected by the sensor. As a result, vicarious calibration allows physical quantities to be known in units of Radiance  for any pixel from a single image in a particular camera channel. The basis of this behavior is that each body has its own, different reflected/emitted energy pattern that sets it apart from other material when electromagnetic energy impinges on it.

Multiespectral2_enThe instrument employed in this research line included a low-cost multispectral camera of 6 channels that operates in the spectral range between 0.530-0.801µm. It is also capable to be loaded in an Unmanned Aerial System to carry out close-range aerial studies.

Following, some study cases are graphically depicted as examples of the large arising applications from the use of multispectral sensors. Water stress early detection in plants, assessment of moisture level in concrete structures or discrimination between different kinds of rocks are some of these examples.

 

Multiespectral_en

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Flaws on welds: detection, characterization and measure using active thermography and macro-photogrammetry.

cordon 2There exist a lot of types of flaws in weld, each one is different and their effects and dangerousness are different and they can produce different failures modes.  In the one hand, a new procedure of non-destructive test (NDT) to detect and characterize flaws in welds is proposed within a research jointly conducted by the Applied Geotechnologies Research Group at University of Vigo (http://geotech.webs.uvigo.es/) and the TIDOP Group at University of Salamanca.

Using active thermography, cracks can be detected and classified. Image (Fig.1) shows the application of process to detect a toe crack in a weld of carbon steel. Toe cracks are a type of crack that presents different incisions into material surface; this feature allows differentiation of other types of cracks. Procedure finish getting a thermal 3D plot which can be seen the thermal profile of flaw and the existence of two incisions (peaks).

 

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In the other hand, crack is analyzed with a macro-photogrammetry process. Starting from standard images shot (with a commercial photographic camera), a cloud of points is built and, then, a mesh is applied to create a solid model). The procedure is used to study different zones and depths of cracks, with this; measuring with tenths of a millimeter precision is possible and export to solid model to Finite Element Method (FEM) software is possible too, with they, crack can be study to predict failures in material from the straight material view point.

cordon_crack_enThis photogrammetric procedure cannot only be used to detect, characterize and measure cracks; it can be used to detect other flaws in welds, characterize and measure them and to classify them regarding geometrical relationships established in quality standards.

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3D modelling and management of complex infrastructures

This research line aims to develop a flexible system that allows performing the management, maintenance and inventory in both types of complex infrastructures. So that all technical information (CAD models, databases, dimensional analysis and diagnosis of the state of elements) can be accessible through a virtual immersive environment.

Laser scanning technology is chosen as the primary source of data capture with a dual purpose: fist, to yield the reconstruction of the elements, and second, to establish control and safety over time (monitoring). Furthermore, because the access to such infrastructures is complex and dangerous, this technique is ideal for capturing data in a non-destructively and non-invasive way.

 

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Along with laser technology other techniques as close range, UAV and thermal photogrammetry are integrated to add quantitative and quantitative information.

 

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The final products consist of 3D CAD models of all the elements, thermographic images and models, georeferenced aerial images and models and finally, a Spatial Information System (SIS) of the electrical substation, a virtual system where all the final products are gathered in a unique and immersive environment.

 

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Automation extraction of road alignment and geometric inventory of roads through systems of mobile mapping

 

 

This line of research focuses on the use of mobile mappFurgoing systems (MMS-Mapping Mobile System) to obtain geometric inventory of roads and the same alignment automation. One of the major difficulties that have these systems is the lack of software capable of automating the extraction of semantic interest information such as platform of the road or the road markings, from which to obtain the delineation of the road and its geometric inventory (i.e. nº lanes, width platform, width shoulders, width lanes) as the road horizontal alignment (i.e. straight, circular curves, clothoids) as vertical alignment (i.e. slope, vertical curves, superelevations).

 

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With this type of developments, it will be possible to perform a quick and comprehensive control of highways management authorities, since through the derived information can identify problems related to the State of the roads, their geometric inventory and even the improvement of road safety. However, one of the biggest problems that faced is the treatment of the information captured and more specifically segmentation and modelling of objects and entities from the disorganized nature and topology of the clouds of points.

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Modeling and pathological evaluation of historical buildings

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAPreservation of historical buildings is considered a fundemantal issue. Monuments significantly contribute to the economy of cities and countries. Motivated by the above reason the research group TIDOP actually is involved in several topics related mainly with the evaluation of pathological process in this type of buildings. Mainly two aspects can be distinguished:

Pathological analysis trough supervised and unsupervised classification techniques.

Damage structural evaluation through dynamic analysis tecnhniques in combination with geometric modelling approaches from geotechnological sensors.

For the first aspect, pathological analysis through multiespectral classifications, it´s possible to evaluate the presence of living organisms, atmospheric degradation processes,moisture,etc. This methodologiy offers the advantege of fully characterization in historical buildings, with differents types of materials(timber structures, masonry,etc). Always from a non-destructive and non-contact perspective.

 

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Pat_4Its also note, that thanks to the use of structural dymanical techniques, mainly from Operational Modal Analysis, in combation with the accurate geometrical models, its possible to asses the structural damage in histocial buildings. This combination is enhanced with the use of robust calibration process and the numerical simulation of cracks and deformations. All of these characteristic derived in a complete and accurate numerical model of the construction.

 

 

 

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Innovative geomatic methods applied to flood modelling and river analysis

For a suitable assessment and management of the exposure level to natural flood risks is crucial obtaining a detailed-accurate reconstruction of the terrain susceptible to be affected, which provides a proper inundation modeling. Since the damage generated by floods is considerable, the delimitation of risk zones is critical in order to carry out the right action measures.

 

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Moreover, the reality of climate change produces a stronger pressure on water resources systems and the physical environment. Given this situation, water resources management requires a set of efficient and flexible tools, as well as techniques and methodologies that will facilitate the process the decision making.

 

For this reason, TIDOP research group is working with new methodologies and low cost sensors and platforms for an accurate, economical, and less time consuming geomatic product for in river engineering and risk assessment.

 

Using novel platforms like the ultra-light aircraft, a high continuous geometric 3D riverbed model (better than 0.10 m) and very high resolution orthophotos (0.025 m) are being obtained and analysed.

 

This new technique improve the official methodology for terrain reconstruction in flood risk analysis, leading to a more accurate analysis, and allowing a better defining the risk level as a consequence of a more faithful representation of the terrain.

 

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Safeguard plan management for heritage buildings

The protection and safeguarding of cultural and architectural heritage is an obligation established by law in developed countries. Urban planning outlines special protection schemes for the maintenance of old towns, their historical setting, their uses, activities, and traffic regulations. The Group of World Heritage Cities in Spain (GCPHE) involves several cities, in which is included Ávila, declared a World Heritage site by UNESCO in 1985. Many buildings in Avila are declared of cultural interest and could be threatened by a fire, as well as, natural causes of deterioration, so that their safeguarding and protection is an issue of primary interest.

 

Since no document collects emergency plans, TIDOP research group in conjunction with City Council, Fire Service and Civil Protection authorities of the city of Avila, developed a new tool for the management and safeguard of historic buildings in the Spanish World Heritage City of Avila.

 

The system that we have developed represents a low-cost solution for the integration of heritage building information. Conventional photographic, panoramic objectives and aerial images were integrated into a spatial information system along with graphical and textual information about the primary characteristics of the objects located inside buildings (sculptures, tapestries, and other valuable artwork) to facilitate decision-making processes.

 

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3d Modeling of paleolithic caves

Cultural heritage conservation has gained attention in recent years. The balance between exploitation-dissemination and heritage conservation is difficult, especially in underground environments such as cavities and caves which enclose rock art. Three-dimensional recording and modeling of rock art sites allows obtaining different applications: from a technical side, accurate, detailed and non-destructive surveying of these subterranean sites can be generated which is useful for its preservation, analysis and restoration; from a communication level, the creation of physical replicas based on 3d printers, the virtual visits with augmented reality glasses could be some of the most popular strategies to open these protected places to the general public. 

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Different geotechnologies for the 3D recording and modeling were applied at several Paleolithic rock art caves in the North of Spain, which have been declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO and have restricted public access. Combination of terrestrial laser scanner and close range photogrammetry for generating the geometry of 3D surfaces as well as 3D real textured models and map products were applied.

 

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Low-cost photogrammetry application to the forest inventory

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This research line is focused on the combination of low-cost photogrammetry and LiDAR data to forest inventory.The main idea is to exploit the high density of points that can be obtained by photogrammetric techniques, its quick data acquisition and the advantages of its radiometric information for a proper segmentation and classification of point clouds (ground class and vegetation class). These features will provide a high quality Digital Surface Model. Combining this information with the LiDAR PNOA data (available for the Spanish territory), we will obtain a high quality DVM (Digital Vegetation Model).

 

        

 

 

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This product exploits the main advantages of the LiDAR sensor (accessibility through the vegetation cover) solving the problem of photogrammetric reconstruction in those places with relevant information and dense vegetation. Therefore, merging low-cost photogrammetry (high quality DSM) with LiDAR data corresponding to the ground surface (high quality DTM) will provide a high quality Digital Vegetation Model (DVM=DSM-DTM), an important starting point for forest inventory. From this information, in addition to inventory data collected in the field (ground truth), a statistical analysis can be performed (position, centralization, dispersion…) in order to validate the products obtained.

 

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Mobile Laser System (MLS) applied to urban tree inventory

In urbanized Western Europe trees are considered an important component of the built-up environment. This also means that there is an increasing demand for tree inventories. Laser mobile mapping systems provide an efficient and accurate way to sample the 3D road surrounding including notable roadside trees. In this research line, a processing chain aiming at the extraction of tree locations and tree sizes from laser mobile mapping data is reached.

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Such steps, in combination with code optimization are expected to be sufficient to reach the final goal of automatized estimation of features sampled by mobile mapping at a rate that matches the acquisition speed and at a quality that matches the result of a human operator.

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Geothermal energy

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Geothermal energy plays an important role within the sector of energy production from renewable origin. However, this energy is not widely used at the moment due to the high initial investment these installations require. The present research line is intended to identify the weaknesses of geothermal energy in order to suggest new solutions to increase the efficiency of these systems, making them more accessible to any user. This research line comprises a series of actions and laboratory tests as:

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Satellite imagery for the irrigation activity detection

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This research line is focused on the use of open-access and high resolution satellite data in order to identify agricultural plots with a clear irrigation activity. In this way, since this kind of remote sensing data is acquired periodically (depending of the temporal resolution of the satellite), it is possible not only to monitor the temporal evolution of these irrigations but also to study the phenological cycle of the vegetation cover, and so draw conclusions about the type of crop of each agricultural plot. In this regard, satellite platforms like Landsat 8 or Sentinel 2-A/B offer the possibility of downloading their data for free within a few days of being acquired. The basis of the methodology is a correct spectral band combination to obtain false color images that highlight the vegetation as well as to calculate the NDVI that graphically indicates the healthy and vigor of crop and therefore, indirectly, the irrigation activity according to each season of the year. In order to properly manage all this geospatial information, a geographic information system software (QGIS for example) as well as an organized spatial database are required in order to manage all data involved in these analyzes.

 

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Characterization of materials and industrial solutions by means of digital image correlation approaches.

Digital image correlation is a photogrammetric approach devoted to the evaluation of the deformations suffered by materials or industrial solutions (e.g. analysis of extinguishers). To this end, different images were captured along the test thanks to the use of 1 or 2 cameras (depending on the type of digital image correlation that we want to carry out).

The workflow used to capture and process the data is the following one:

As a result, it is possible to extract mechanical properties (e.g. Young Modulus or Poisson ratio) and validate complex numérical simulation by means of the Finite Element Method.

 

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Photogrammetric approaches for the analysis of cut marks on bones

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Cut marks on bones are the main evidence about the contact of human beings with meat resources. The mentioned marks are produced when a cutting tool slides on the bone surface to extract the meat. This type of trace is highly important to explain the behaviour of prehistoric populations.

 

The study of cut marks can be tackled from different perspectives. The most relevant one is based on the analysis of the cut marks morphology with the aim of determining the tools used to process the carcases coming from a site and the raw materials used to build those tools.

Several Scientifics have developed these researches using a series of microscopic techniques of high cost, difficult access and high degree of specialization.  

With the object of reducing those limitations and creating an appropriate methodology as well as a reference frame suitable for these analyses, the research group TIDOP from the University of Salamanca together with researches from the Complutense University of Madrid has developed a novel methodology. It is based on the documentation of 3D cut marks by micro-photogrammetric techniques using the open source software of photogrammetric reconstruction GRAPHOS. This software allows obtaining tridimensional models generating a working methodology of low cost, easy to use and accessible to the whole scientific community. 

 

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The development of this technique together with the statistical and morphometric analyses has made this progress possible.

 

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Thus, in the BK site (Bell´s Korongo – Upper Bed II) (Olduvai Canyon, Tanzania) the dressing processes are associated to the type of row material used for those processes. The result of this analysis shows that the 81% of cut marks from BK site were made with quartzite tools. This fact validates a group of previous studies carried out in the site that established the quartzite as the predominant raw material when processing the carcasses (Leakey, 1971, Kyara, 1999, Díez et al., 1999a, b).

 Additionally, a series of photogrammetric and morphometric analyses carried out on the cut marks carried of FLK West site (Frida Leakey Korongo) (Olduvai Canyon, Tanzania) have demonstrated that cut marks found in fossils of the site were made with quartzite chippings instead of bifaces. Therefore, results suggest that bifaces were not used in the carcasses processing, being used for other purposes (e.g. the misuse of vegetal resources). 

 

These analyses have been used for the analysis of other types of taphonomic alterations, generating great results.

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