Revela-Duero: new open-source tool for irrigation management and crops classification along the Douro Basin.

The research group TIDOP develops a software tool, named Revela-Duero, with the aim of controlling the water used for irrigation purposes in the Douro Basin Confederation, inside the framework of the National Project “Implementation of a system for detecting irrigated areas and crop types along the Douro Basin by analyzing remote sensing scenes”.

This National Project, encouraged by the Douro Basin Confederation, is carried out by the University of Salamanca, represented by its research group TIDOP from the High Polytechnic School of Ávila, in collaboration with the University of Castilla-La Mancha.

The tool, named as Revela Duero, has been developed as an open source that allows to accurately control the use of the water resources in the widest Spanish basin from the space, using the satellites. Both Landsat 8, from NASA, and Sentinel 2, from ESA, are used, but mainly S2 regarding to its higher spatial and temporal resolution, of 10 m over Landsat’s 30 m and every 5 days since the Sentinel 2-B launch on March 7th.


Thereby, this software tool will allow both saving water and fulfilling the monitoring tasks of the fluvial guards, detecting the unauthorized irrigated areas from the data provided by the satellites images, cartographic information compiled by the SIGPAC and several information supplied by the basin organism, fluvial guards and declarations given by the irrigation users. Moreover, it will estimate the water volume consumed and crop type by using the progression of the NDVI curve, which is the normalized difference vegetation index.



For more details please consult: El Mundo new


New approaches for the digitalization of cultural heritage: the 4D analysis

The research unit TIDOP evaluates new solutions for the 4D digitalization of cultural heritage inside the framework of the European project CTH-2

Cultural Heritage Through Time (CTH2) is an international research project leader by the Polytechnic of Milan, where different named universities, among which highlights the University of Salamanca (represented by the research unit TIDOP of the High Polytechnic School of Avila), attempt to develop new methodologies for the digitalization and valorisation of our cultural heritage. Inside the framework of this project, the research unit TIDOP will be focused on the development of a digilitalization methodology able to evaluate the cultural heritage through time. Approach that was applied to one of the emblematic elements that compose one of the most important Spanish constructions: the medieval wall of Avila. The chosen element was the Alcazar gate, where de PhD Belén Jimenez Fernández-Palacios focused part of her PhD Dissertation, entitled: “Planning, Surveying, Modelling and Visualization Techniques in the Field of Cultural Heritage”.

During her investigations, Jimenez deals with the three critical factors for the digitilization of heritage: (i) automation of processes; (ii) generation of dense 3D models of high geometric and radiometric quality and; (iii) the use of low-cost devices. Proposing a methodology able to blend data form different sources (aerial photogrammetry, mobile mapping system and terrestrial laser scanner) in a unique and optimized 3D model. Model which later was used to insert useful information in order to understand the history of the construction as well as to serve as a base for subsequent restoration and dissemination actions.


For more details please consult: CTH2



The TIDOP Research Group 2017 Innovations Award winner for the CRASHMAP Project

crash_ca_1rAccording to the latest consolidated statistics of the National Department of Traffic, 83.115 accidents with victims (deceased, seriously and slightly injured) were registered in the last year. These figures show the volume of interventions, specifically the number of police statement that the State Security Forces perform.

At present, the reconstruction of traffic accidents is carried out based on in situ measurements by the Security Forces and subsequently, when the car has been evicted, by the consulting companies hired by those affected. This process is quite ineffective (requiring road cuts and the access of the agents involves), adds many errors as well as a rather subjective component to the data capture process due to the standardized forms and questions used. In addition, nothing can be corrected once the car has been evicted from the scene. After the data collection and documentation of the accident, the Security Forces generate a report with the geometric data so that the corresponding legal processes can continue.

The CRASHMAP Project, developed by the TIDOP Research Group of the University of Salamanca, establishes a system of 3D reconstruction and analysis of accidents in urban and interurban areas that allows the Security Forces (Local Police and Civil Guard) to support expert reports with accurate and objective data. Thus, the deformation of the vehicle as well as their impact speed are quantified and stored.


Software that allows the 3D reconstruction of traffic accident scenes with metric properties as well as the calculation of the basic parameters associated to these kind of accidents (distances, angles, speeds, paths, etc.).

CRASHMAP consists of:

  • A software (client) that allows: to perform the data collection by images taken with a mobile phone and following a simple protocol (, to upload the images to the cloud, to download the resulting 3D models and to perform the metric and energetic analysis of the accident (impact speeds against vehicles, fixed elements or people)
  • A software (server) located in the cloud that allows the calculation of the smart 3D models remotely. This software has the required algorithms to transform 2D data (images) into 3D data (crashmap).

The software has been used successfully by the Local Police of Salamanca for 2 years and some of the results have already been presented to the Justice Administration as part of the expert reports.

Susana Del Pozo Aguilera, awarded by the CIPA for the best Intenational thesis

Susana Del Pozo Aguilera, engineer of the TIDOP Research Group, awarded by the International Committee for Documentation of Cultural Heritage for the best International thesis of 2016

The doctoral thesis entitled Multispectral imaging for the analysis of materials and pathologies in civil engineering, constructions and natural spaces defended by Susana Del Pozo Aguilera has just received the CIPA award 2016 for the best international thesis of 2016 that combines Geomatics and Cultural Heritage ( The promoter of this award recognition is the International Scientific Committee for Heritage Documentation (CIPA).

The researcher defended her thesis, directed by  Dr. Diego González-Aguilera (University of Salamanca) and Dr. Pablo Rodríguez-Gonzálvez (University of León), on April 22, 2016. Her works include studies on health status and water deficit in crops, the discrimination between different rocks and minerals in rock massifs, and evaluations of the degradation state of building materials (mainly produced by moisture).

Currently, she is an active member of the TIDOP Research Group at the University of Salamanca where she continues her research work linked to the thesis as well as she collaborate in the development of several national and international research projects.


The technology behind these studies is included within close-range remote sensing. Thanks to the combined use of different sensors that capture information from surfaces, not only in the visible but also in the infrared spectral range, it is possible to draw conclusions about their “healthy” state.

Among the equipment used by Del Pozo are conventional digital cameras, multispectral cameras and some terrestrial laser scanners. These geotechnologies allow to capture information of objects at a certain distance from them so that no contact with their surface is established. These remote and non-invasive technologies are consolidated as an ideal tool to study protected or inaccessible elements such as natural reserves or cultural heritage assets among others.

In addition, the final products and results are very useful to perform rehabilitation process of historical buildings, infrastructure improvements and even qualitative and quantitative analysis of natural resources.


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Análisis termográfico de edificios


El uso de la termografía infrarroja comMapaEnergeticoo técnica sobradamente provada para la inspección de edificios y localización de patologías como fugas de aire, humedades, etc. Nos permite realizar un examen visual “in-situ” de calidad de los objetos de estudio gracias a la posibilidad de visualizar en tiempo real los resultados pudiendo detectar sin dificultad los desperfectos o elementos característicos de estos. Estas técnicas de medición cualitativa nos proporcionan la posibilidad de realizar inspecciones rápidas y eficaces sin contacto directo con el objeto y de forma no destructiva, lo que disminuye tanto el riesgo de incidentes para los operarios como los daños producidos en los propios objetos de estudio ocasionados por otras técnicas intrusivas. Además, también se ha demostrado la utilidad de la termografía infrarroja como técnica puramente de medida a través de su utilización para el cálculo de propiedades termofísicas de materiales tales como difusividad y transmitancia térmica.

En el caso de termografía cualitativa, las publicaciones existentes tratan de estudios realizados in-situ, principalmente en edificios históricos o elementos del patrimonio cultural, mientras que los estudios cualitativos se realizan, en la mayor parte de los casos, en laboratorios sobre muestras de tamaño limitado. En aquellos casos en los que se han realizado estudios termográficos cuantitativos sobre edificios in-situ, los valores de temperatura son empleados con el objetivo de obtener propiedades termofísicas (conductancia térmica) reales del cerramiento, sin embargo su distribución espacial no es considerada.

Conjugar ambas aplicaciones permitirá la automatización del cálculo de pérdidas de calor a partir de las temperaturas medidas con una cámara termográfica. De este modo, no solo se usa la termografía para representar el estado de la pared, sino que también se usan los valores de temperatura contenidos en la termografía para la extracción de parámetros métricos del edificio en estudio, por lo que la hibridación de la información termográfica con el material cartográfico de precisión permitiría extraer la geometría real del objeto de estudio con textura termográfica, pudiendo así realizar mediciones precisas de los elementos de interés directamente sobre el resultado obtenido.




Estudios como el publicado por EuroACE en 2010 colocan la mejora de la eficiencia energética en edificación en cabeza de las acciones necesarias para la reducción de emisiones de gases del efecto invernadero y gasto energético, así como para servir de empuje a la generación de empleo. Especial es el caso del parque de edificios ya construidos, la mayoría procedente de los años 1940-80, con normativa inexistente y recursos escasos. En ellos las obras de rehabilitación energética pueden suponer un ahorro de hasta el 75% en consumo de energía. En España existen 13 millones de viviendas susceptibles de intervención, cuya rehabilitación energética supondría una reducción de las emisiones del sector del 34% con respecto al año 2001.

Building thermographic analysis



The use of infraMapaEnergeticored thermography as a widely tested technique for building inspection and location of pathologies such as air leakage and moisture allows the performance of  quality “in-situ” visual examination of the objects under study due to the possibility of obtaining real-time results, being able to detect without difficulty damages or material characteristics. This qualitative measurement technique provides the capability of doing quick, effective and non-destructive inspection without direct contact with the object under study, decreasing the risk of incidents to operators and the damage of the objects comparing with other intrusive techniques. Furthermore, the utility of infrared thermography as a measurement technique has been proved by its use for the determination of the thermophysical properties of materials such as diffusivity and thermal transmittance.

In the qualitative approach, some authors have performed in-situ studies, mainly in historical buildings or cultural heritage elements, whereas quantitative studies are performed mainly in laboratories with limited size samples. In those cases where quantitative thermography studies were performed in-situ, temperature values were employed in order to obtain the real thermophysical properties (thermal conductance) of the building envelope, but their spatial distribution is not considered.

Combine both applications will enable the automation of the heat loss computation from the measured temperatures with a thermographic camera. Thus, the thermography is not only used to represent the state of the wall, but also temperature values represented on the thermography for extracting the metric parameters of the study object so the hybridization of the thermographic information with precise cartographic material would  allow to extract the actual geometry of the object of study with thermal texture, being able to make accurate measurements of the elements of interest directly on the obtained results.




Studies such as the one published by EuroACE in 2010, places improved energy efficiency in building construction at the top of the list of actions that need to be taken to reduce greenhouse gases and energy costs, in addition to acting as a stimulus to generate employment. In particular is the case of existing buildings stock, most of which dates back to the period 1940-80, constructed using non-existent standards and scarce resources. Here, energy refurbishment works could represent a saving of up to 75% in energy consumption. In Spain there are 13 million homes that could be the subject of intervention, where energy refurbishment could result in a reduction in sector emissions of 34% compared to 2001.


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Mobile Laser System (MLS) applied to urban tree inventory

In urbanized Western Europe trees are considered an important component of the built-up environment. This also means that there is an increasing demand for tree inventories. Laser mobile mapping systems provide an efficient and accurate way to sample the 3D road surrounding including notable roadside trees. In this research line, a processing chain aiming at the extraction of tree locations and tree sizes from laser mobile mapping data is reached.

  • Vegetation extraction


  • Tree parameter extraction



Such steps, in combination with code optimization are expected to be sufficient to reach the final goal of automatized estimation of features sampled by mobile mapping at a rate that matches the acquisition speed and at a quality that matches the result of a human operator.

Miembro del grupo TIDOP

Lloyd A. Courtenay

Graduado en arqueología por la Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Actualmente está acabando un Máster en Arqueología del Cuaternario y Evolución Humana por la Universidad Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona, con el objetivo de seguir con su formación investigadora matriculándose en un programa de Doctorado en prehistoria para el próximo año académico. Habiéndose especializado en el campo de la tafonomía, trabaja principalmente en el estudio microscópico de los restos óseos que aparecen en los yacimientos arqueológicos y paleontológicos. Su principal campo de investigación está dirigido hacia la aplicación de nuevas metodologías en yacimientos del Pleistoceno Inferior Africano. En los últimos años ha emprendido su carrera profesional adaptando los nuevos avances estadísticos en otros campos como la Inteligencia Artificial, buscando maneras de aplicarlos al estudio del registro fósil. Siguiendo esta línea de investigación, ha conseguido desarrollar una serie de algoritmos aplicando métodos de Machine y Deep Learning para el procesado de datos derivados de modelos 3D. Con el diseño de algoritmos complejos como las Redes de Neuronas Artificiales y las Máquinas de Vectores de Soporte, ha desarrollado nuevos modelos estadísticos que pueden distinguir entre la actividad de diferentes carnívoros a través de las marcas de dientes que dejan. Estos modelos permiten también la clasificación de las alteraciones microscópicas halladas como producto de agentes naturales o por el contrario, si fueron consecuencia de las actividades de caza de los antiguos homínidos.

Líneas de investigación:

  • Tafonomía y zooarqueología aplicado al estudio del Pleistoceno Inferior
  • Desarrollo de nuevos métodos para el estudio microscópico de los restos fósiles
  • Diseño y aplicación de nuevos métodos estadísticos en la arqueología, incluyendo la aplicación de técnicas 3D para la documentación de restos óseos, y el uso de algoritmos de Inteligencia Artificial para procesar tales datos
TIDOP Member

Lloyd A. Courtenay

An Archaeology graduate having studied in the Complutense University of Madrid, he is currently finishing his Master’s degree in Quaternary Archaeology and Human Evolution in the University Rovira I Virgili, Tarragona. Starting next academic year, he intends to continue his professional career by enrolling in a Doctoral programme in prehistory. Specialised in the field of taphonomy, he works primarily on the microscopic study of osteological materials found in archaeological and paleontological sites. His main field of research lies in the development of new methods for the study of Lower Pleistocene sites in Africa. Over the last couple of years, he has focused his research on the adaptation of new statistical advances from other fields of research, such as Artificial Intelligence, with the hope of finding new means of applying these techniques to the prehistoric fossil register. Through this line of research, he has achieved the development of Machine and Deep Learning algorithms for the processing of 3D data. His most notable advances have included the development of Artificial Neural Networks and Support Vector Machines for the differentiation of carnivore activity through the tooth marks animals may leave on bone. He has also achieved models that are able to successfully classify microscopic traces, discerning between natural agents and those produced by ancient hominids in prehistoric butchery practices.

Research lines:

  • Taphonomy and zooarchaeology applied to the Lower Pleistocene
  • Development of new methodological approaches for the study of fossil remains
  • Design and application of new statistical models for archaeological studies, including 3D modelling for the documentation of bone, and the use of Artificial Intelligence algorithms for the processing of this data
Drones terrestres aplicados al modelizado tridimensional e inspección de infraestructuras críticas y de difícil acceso.


Equipar drones con sensores láser, detectores de obstáculos y sistemas de control remoto permite obtener de forma segura y fiable los modelos tridimensionales de escenarios críticos, entendiendo como escenarios críticos todos aquellos escenarios en los que una persona correría peligro realizando los trabajos.

Este tipo de escenarios abarcan desde grutas angostas y estrechas a las que es difícil acceder, hasta escenarios industriales complejos, como subestaciones eléctricas, en las que existen riesgos de descargas eléctricas, salas de calderas, edificios con problemas estructurales etc.

A pesar de ser lugares críticos, su mantenimiento e inspección es un aspecto clave en el campo del control preventivo de averías y deformaciones, por lo que obtener el modelo tridimensional de estos lugares es fundamental. En este sentido, los drones terrestres, cada vez más sofisticados, permiten integrar escáner láser terrestre para capturar el entorno, asi como detectores de obstáculos y diferentes sistemas de comunicación, de modo que pueden moverse de forma autónoma o ser teledirigidos de forma remota.

Hasta el momento se ha investigado la integración de drones terrestres y escáner láser utilizando dos metodologías de trabajo diferentes, según el grado de precisión y detalle que se necesite y dependiendo de las dimensiones del espacio en el que se esté trabajando.


Finalmente, se está investigando la manera de combinar los modelos tridimensionales obtenidos por los drones terrestres con datos procedentes de drones aéreos equipados con cámaras fotográficas o cámaras termográficas. Combinar ambos modelos es esencial para obtener una cobertura total de la escena de estudio y poder detectar anomalías en cualquier lugar. Ésta línea de acción se está introduciendo para controlar subestaciones eléctricas y plantas solares fotovoltaicas ya que en ambos casos es posible detectar zonas con un calentamiento anormal que indiquen un funcionamiento que deberá revisarse.


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Land drones applied to three-dimensional modeling and control of complex industrial environments


Land drones can be armed with different devices such as terrestrial laser scanner, obstacle detectors or remote control systems, in order to provide accurate 3D models of unattended or critical environments in a safe way.

Environments like narrow caves that are difficult to access, electrical substations where there are risk of electric shock, boiler rooms or buildings with structural problems are considered critical environments for human operators due to the danger they entail.

Despite being critical spaces, its maintenance, inspection and control are essential to prevent damages and detect breakdowns, so accurate three-dimensional models are indispensable. For this purpose, terrestrial drones allow the integration of terrestrial laser scanners to capture the environment, as well as obstacle detectors and different communication systems, so that they can be autonomous vehicles or remote-controlled vehicles.

Depending on the accuracy needed and the dimensions of the study case, two different  combinations of technologies have been explored, both combining laser scanner with land drones.

To complete this research line, we are working in different methodologies to combine 3D models obtained with land drones and data obtained with aerial drones equipped with conventional cameras or thermo graphic cameras.

Mix both kind of models make the three-dimensional model much more complete and it is possible to detect pathologies in almost everywhere.  Some of this process has been used with success in electrical substations and photovoltaic solar plants, detecting, for example, anomalies in some panels.


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