A project of the University of Salamanca for three-dimensional reconstruction of objects with scale rise in Australia with the award ‘Silver ISPRS CATCON Award’.

TIDOP research group at the Polytechnic School of Avila receives an award from the most prestigious international organization in its field.

A project of the University of Salamanca 3DThe Group of Information Technology for Heritage Documentation (TIDOP) at the University of Salamanca has won the ‘Silver ISPRS CATCON Award’ International Award in the sixth annual CATCON Software Competition, held in Melbourne (Australia), with an application for three-dimensional reconstruction of objects to scale.
This award is a new international recognition TIDOP group hand of the International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ISPRS, its acronym in English), the most prestigious and recognized in the field of Geomatics institution, Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.
The presented tool, PW-Photogrammetry Workbench allows 3D reconstruction of any object, automatically and scaled by using multiple images. One of the most salient features of the tool is its simplicity and flexibility of operation, allowing other experts and disciplines can benefit from this tool.
This project has been led by Diego González-Aguilera, Department of Land and Cartography of the Polytechnic School of Avila, who stands on the project as the most salient features that “can work with any type of image (visible from range, infrared or thermal) that has been captured from any platform (manned and unmanned UAV) and even with any kind of camera (calibrated and non-calibrated)”. All this translates into the ability to easily create three-dimensional scale models, which is a major advancement in the fields of engineering and architecture as well as in other areas.
The contest, held in Melbourne during the last week of August, cites representatives from various countries such as Korea, Italy, China, Japan, France, Brazil, Australia, India, Germany and Spain. The process consisted of two parts: the first test presentation tool five minutes and a second two-hour test consisting of the tool in front of a committee of experts from the ISPRS above, as well as those attending the competition.

The TIDOP group

The Group Information Technology for Documentation of Heritage Polytechnic from School of Avila has open several research covering topics such as documentation and modeling of monuments, topographic and photogrammetric, dimensional analysis from a single image, 3D laser uprisings, photogrammetry low cost for the preservation of heritage and information systems applied to Heritage.
His work has allowed since the three-dimensional reconstruction of prehistoric caves and monuments, as the walls of Avila, to applications for interactive navigation electrical substations, through software to recreate crime scenes with great applications in forensic engineering.

A project of the University of Salamanca 3D

How to build a city in three dimensions?

• The University of Salamanca and the University of Vigo developed a laser able to scan and virtually reproduce a city.
• The device will be very useful in the architectural, geographic and infrastructural fields.

How to build a city in three dimensions?The University of Salamanca, in conjunction with the University of Vigo, has developed the most innovative tool in the field of architectural practice: a laser photographing buildings, get of them all the information possible and provides accurate 3D views.
The device, which has several cameras and laser sensors, has been installed in a van to go through the cities. This tool transforms reality first to point clouds and, later, in three-dimensional images.
“They have a laser system that gives three-dimensionality, a photographic system that gives skin to the three-dimensional geometry, GPS and a very powerful inertial system that defines the path we follow in motion,” explains Diego González Aguilera, professor at the University of Salamanca Avila.
This system allows you to scan a city like Ávila in just two days with an accurate diagnosis. Classic tools require nearly two months and much higher costs.
The practical utility of this technique is to facilitate the restoration and reconstruction of dilapidated buildings, and allow to virtually visit cities. Furthermore the tool can apply to ports or railways.
Pablo Arias, a professor at the University of Vigo, widens the scope of the device: “It will allow us to do studies from energy efficiency in buildings to plan maintenance activities in all that is infrastructure”.

The practical utility of this technique is to facilitate the restoration and reconstruction of dilapidated buildings, and allow to virtually visit cities. Furthermore the tool can apply to ports or railways.The practical utility of this technique is to facilitate the restoration and reconstruction of dilapidated buildings, and allow to virtually visit cities. Furthermore the tool can apply to ports or railways.

How to build a city in three dimensions?

A final year project in Topography, led by Diego González Aguilera, get the Third Prize “San Isidoro 2010”.

The project applies laser and photogrammetric geotechnologies to digitalize the Castle of Turégano (Segovia) and has been awarded by one of the most important national awards in surveying.

A final year project in Topography“Application of laser and photogrammetric geotechnologies in the digitization of complex scenarios: Castle of Turégano (Segovia)” is the title of a project of Ana Martín de Frutos and Saúl Javier Yáñez Díaz and directed by Professor of the University of Salamanca Diego González Aguilera. It is a final year project to undertake documentation and dimensional modeling through nondestructive geotechnologies applied to the Castle of Turégano (Segovia) and for which the authors have obtained the third prize San Isidoro 2010, awarded by the College of Engineers Surveying.
As González Aguilera explained “San Isidoro awards are the most important awards at the national level for final projects in Surveying Engineering degree.” He also stressed that in the Polytechnic School of Ávila is not the first time they get one of these prestigious awards, as “in addition to this third prize, in the last five years we have achieved three first prizes.”
The ultimate goal of this geotechologies such as laser and photogrammetric application project to the complex stage of the Castle of Turégano, “is to have a rigorous mapping document that can be exploited by the different agents involved in the work of restoration and conservation of architectural heritage,” the authors explain in the summary of their work.
To do this they processed the point clouds collected by different field stations in order to optimize the time of capture. This work is streamlined reducing the scanning resolution to 100 dots per square meter, resolution enough for its objective since its aim was to transfer the tedious task involved in the model vectorization.
Thus, the work of Martín de Frutos and Yáñez Díaz represents another step in the transformation of laser data to CAD models, which are lighter and more compact and offer advantages over the 3D model, such as to complete occlusions and shadows or areas without information as well as project photo textures obtaining a greater visual appeal and a great similarity with the reality.
The authors of the awarded project have also done extensive photographic documentation of the entire Castle of Turégano complex as a virtual tour that allows us to cross it and learn the details, elements and views impossible to see at street.

A final year project in Topography

USAL presents his strategies for innovation in the “Club Innova”.

The chancellor highlight that “innnovación occurs through the transfer of knowledge and universities are the most important research centers in the country”.

USALThe University of Salamanca was the main protagonist of the last day of the second cycle of Innova Club, a forum for reflection and analysis focusing this time on the “important” role of the University to encourage innovation, a concept that is embodied “through the transfer of knowledge upon research performed at the centers, and universities are the most important research centers of the country”. These are words of the rector of the University of Salamanca, Daniel Hernández Ruipérez, responsible for opening the session with the mayor of Ávila, Miguel Ángel García Nieto, to begin a series of “interesting” papers on aspects of “how to understand innovation from the work of the university and the company, in their R&D departments», in addition to conferences to present cutting-edge projects coming out from Ávila in this context, both from the Polytechnic School and Education and Tourism.
The chancellor also argued for the establishment of “very fruitful discussion about the new production model to which we will arrive, the economy has to change, it will not be about a year or two, but fails to incorporate innovation into the production process”, Hernández Ruipérez said, for whom Ávila schools are “well-established” and “work well in both teaching and researching,” and the Polytechnic also in “technology transfer.”
It also referred to the Mayor of Ávila, Miguel Ángel García Nieto. “Innovation is closely linked to universities” that have always been “at the forefront of knowledge”, so continued the mayor, “we were interested to know where the experiences, ideas and projects of the University applied the concept of new methods for changing the production process are” because, he added, “a cycle is finished and we should put into start another with imagination”.
Speakers. With the presence of the principals of Ávila Schools, Sonsoles Sánchez Reyes (Education and Tourism), Miguel Ángel González Iglesias (Polytechnic) and Pilar González (Nursing), the event featured the participation of José Ángel Domínguez (Vice Chancellor for Teaching), Miguel Pérez (Vice Chancellor for Strategic Planning and Evaluation), José Luís Martínez Farrier (professor of Education and Tourism), Alberto Hernández (General Foundation of the University of Salamanca) and Diego González Aguilera (TIDOP Research Group of the University of Salamanca).

USAL

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Análisis termográfico de edificios

 

El uso de la termografía infrarroja comMapaEnergeticoo técnica sobradamente provada para la inspección de edificios y localización de patologías como fugas de aire, humedades, etc. Nos permite realizar un examen visual “in-situ” de calidad de los objetos de estudio gracias a la posibilidad de visualizar en tiempo real los resultados pudiendo detectar sin dificultad los desperfectos o elementos característicos de estos. Estas técnicas de medición cualitativa nos proporcionan la posibilidad de realizar inspecciones rápidas y eficaces sin contacto directo con el objeto y de forma no destructiva, lo que disminuye tanto el riesgo de incidentes para los operarios como los daños producidos en los propios objetos de estudio ocasionados por otras técnicas intrusivas. Además, también se ha demostrado la utilidad de la termografía infrarroja como técnica puramente de medida a través de su utilización para el cálculo de propiedades termofísicas de materiales tales como difusividad y transmitancia térmica.

En el caso de termografía cualitativa, las publicaciones existentes tratan de estudios realizados in-situ, principalmente en edificios históricos o elementos del patrimonio cultural, mientras que los estudios cualitativos se realizan, en la mayor parte de los casos, en laboratorios sobre muestras de tamaño limitado. En aquellos casos en los que se han realizado estudios termográficos cuantitativos sobre edificios in-situ, los valores de temperatura son empleados con el objetivo de obtener propiedades termofísicas (conductancia térmica) reales del cerramiento, sin embargo su distribución espacial no es considerada.

Conjugar ambas aplicaciones permitirá la automatización del cálculo de pérdidas de calor a partir de las temperaturas medidas con una cámara termográfica. De este modo, no solo se usa la termografía para representar el estado de la pared, sino que también se usan los valores de temperatura contenidos en la termografía para la extracción de parámetros métricos del edificio en estudio, por lo que la hibridación de la información termográfica con el material cartográfico de precisión permitiría extraer la geometría real del objeto de estudio con textura termográfica, pudiendo así realizar mediciones precisas de los elementos de interés directamente sobre el resultado obtenido.

 

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Estudios como el publicado por EuroACE en 2010 colocan la mejora de la eficiencia energética en edificación en cabeza de las acciones necesarias para la reducción de emisiones de gases del efecto invernadero y gasto energético, así como para servir de empuje a la generación de empleo. Especial es el caso del parque de edificios ya construidos, la mayoría procedente de los años 1940-80, con normativa inexistente y recursos escasos. En ellos las obras de rehabilitación energética pueden suponer un ahorro de hasta el 75% en consumo de energía. En España existen 13 millones de viviendas susceptibles de intervención, cuya rehabilitación energética supondría una reducción de las emisiones del sector del 34% con respecto al año 2001.

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Building thermographic analysis

 

 

The use of infraMapaEnergeticored thermography as a widely tested technique for building inspection and location of pathologies such as air leakage and moisture allows the performance of  quality “in-situ” visual examination of the objects under study due to the possibility of obtaining real-time results, being able to detect without difficulty damages or material characteristics. This qualitative measurement technique provides the capability of doing quick, effective and non-destructive inspection without direct contact with the object under study, decreasing the risk of incidents to operators and the damage of the objects comparing with other intrusive techniques. Furthermore, the utility of infrared thermography as a measurement technique has been proved by its use for the determination of the thermophysical properties of materials such as diffusivity and thermal transmittance.

In the qualitative approach, some authors have performed in-situ studies, mainly in historical buildings or cultural heritage elements, whereas quantitative studies are performed mainly in laboratories with limited size samples. In those cases where quantitative thermography studies were performed in-situ, temperature values were employed in order to obtain the real thermophysical properties (thermal conductance) of the building envelope, but their spatial distribution is not considered.

Combine both applications will enable the automation of the heat loss computation from the measured temperatures with a thermographic camera. Thus, the thermography is not only used to represent the state of the wall, but also temperature values represented on the thermography for extracting the metric parameters of the study object so the hybridization of the thermographic information with precise cartographic material would  allow to extract the actual geometry of the object of study with thermal texture, being able to make accurate measurements of the elements of interest directly on the obtained results.

 

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Studies such as the one published by EuroACE in 2010, places improved energy efficiency in building construction at the top of the list of actions that need to be taken to reduce greenhouse gases and energy costs, in addition to acting as a stimulus to generate employment. In particular is the case of existing buildings stock, most of which dates back to the period 1940-80, constructed using non-existent standards and scarce resources. Here, energy refurbishment works could represent a saving of up to 75% in energy consumption. In Spain there are 13 million homes that could be the subject of intervention, where energy refurbishment could result in a reduction in sector emissions of 34% compared to 2001.

 

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Mobile Laser System (MLS) applied to urban tree inventory

In urbanized Western Europe trees are considered an important component of the built-up environment. This also means that there is an increasing demand for tree inventories. Laser mobile mapping systems provide an efficient and accurate way to sample the 3D road surrounding including notable roadside trees. In this research line, a processing chain aiming at the extraction of tree locations and tree sizes from laser mobile mapping data is reached.

  • Vegetation extraction

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  • Tree parameter extraction

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Such steps, in combination with code optimization are expected to be sufficient to reach the final goal of automatized estimation of features sampled by mobile mapping at a rate that matches the acquisition speed and at a quality that matches the result of a human operator.

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Miembro del grupo TIDOP

Lloyd A. Courtenay

Graduado en arqueología por la Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Actualmente está acabando un Máster en Arqueología del Cuaternario y Evolución Humana por la Universidad Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona, con el objetivo de seguir con su formación investigadora matriculándose en un programa de Doctorado en prehistoria para el próximo año académico. Habiéndose especializado en el campo de la tafonomía, trabaja principalmente en el estudio microscópico de los restos óseos que aparecen en los yacimientos arqueológicos y paleontológicos. Su principal campo de investigación está dirigido hacia la aplicación de nuevas metodologías en yacimientos del Pleistoceno Inferior Africano. En los últimos años ha emprendido su carrera profesional adaptando los nuevos avances estadísticos en otros campos como la Inteligencia Artificial, buscando maneras de aplicarlos al estudio del registro fósil. Siguiendo esta línea de investigación, ha conseguido desarrollar una serie de algoritmos aplicando métodos de Machine y Deep Learning para el procesado de datos derivados de modelos 3D. Con el diseño de algoritmos complejos como las Redes de Neuronas Artificiales y las Máquinas de Vectores de Soporte, ha desarrollado nuevos modelos estadísticos que pueden distinguir entre la actividad de diferentes carnívoros a través de las marcas de dientes que dejan. Estos modelos permiten también la clasificación de las alteraciones microscópicas halladas como producto de agentes naturales o por el contrario, si fueron consecuencia de las actividades de caza de los antiguos homínidos.

Líneas de investigación:

  • Tafonomía y zooarqueología aplicado al estudio del Pleistoceno Inferior
  • Desarrollo de nuevos métodos para el estudio microscópico de los restos fósiles
  • Diseño y aplicación de nuevos métodos estadísticos en la arqueología, incluyendo la aplicación de técnicas 3D para la documentación de restos óseos, y el uso de algoritmos de Inteligencia Artificial para procesar tales datos
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TIDOP Member

Lloyd A. Courtenay

An Archaeology graduate having studied in the Complutense University of Madrid, he is currently finishing his Master’s degree in Quaternary Archaeology and Human Evolution in the University Rovira I Virgili, Tarragona. Starting next academic year, he intends to continue his professional career by enrolling in a Doctoral programme in prehistory. Specialised in the field of taphonomy, he works primarily on the microscopic study of osteological materials found in archaeological and paleontological sites. His main field of research lies in the development of new methods for the study of Lower Pleistocene sites in Africa. Over the last couple of years, he has focused his research on the adaptation of new statistical advances from other fields of research, such as Artificial Intelligence, with the hope of finding new means of applying these techniques to the prehistoric fossil register. Through this line of research, he has achieved the development of Machine and Deep Learning algorithms for the processing of 3D data. His most notable advances have included the development of Artificial Neural Networks and Support Vector Machines for the differentiation of carnivore activity through the tooth marks animals may leave on bone. He has also achieved models that are able to successfully classify microscopic traces, discerning between natural agents and those produced by ancient hominids in prehistoric butchery practices.

Research lines:

  • Taphonomy and zooarchaeology applied to the Lower Pleistocene
  • Development of new methodological approaches for the study of fossil remains
  • Design and application of new statistical models for archaeological studies, including 3D modelling for the documentation of bone, and the use of Artificial Intelligence algorithms for the processing of this data
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Drones terrestres aplicados al modelizado tridimensional e inspección de infraestructuras críticas y de difícil acceso.

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Equipar drones con sensores láser, detectores de obstáculos y sistemas de control remoto permite obtener de forma segura y fiable los modelos tridimensionales de escenarios críticos, entendiendo como escenarios críticos todos aquellos escenarios en los que una persona correría peligro realizando los trabajos.

Este tipo de escenarios abarcan desde grutas angostas y estrechas a las que es difícil acceder, hasta escenarios industriales complejos, como subestaciones eléctricas, en las que existen riesgos de descargas eléctricas, salas de calderas, edificios con problemas estructurales etc.

A pesar de ser lugares críticos, su mantenimiento e inspección es un aspecto clave en el campo del control preventivo de averías y deformaciones, por lo que obtener el modelo tridimensional de estos lugares es fundamental. En este sentido, los drones terrestres, cada vez más sofisticados, permiten integrar escáner láser terrestre para capturar el entorno, asi como detectores de obstáculos y diferentes sistemas de comunicación, de modo que pueden moverse de forma autónoma o ser teledirigidos de forma remota.

Hasta el momento se ha investigado la integración de drones terrestres y escáner láser utilizando dos metodologías de trabajo diferentes, según el grado de precisión y detalle que se necesite y dependiendo de las dimensiones del espacio en el que se esté trabajando.

 

Finalmente, se está investigando la manera de combinar los modelos tridimensionales obtenidos por los drones terrestres con datos procedentes de drones aéreos equipados con cámaras fotográficas o cámaras termográficas. Combinar ambos modelos es esencial para obtener una cobertura total de la escena de estudio y poder detectar anomalías en cualquier lugar. Ésta línea de acción se está introduciendo para controlar subestaciones eléctricas y plantas solares fotovoltaicas ya que en ambos casos es posible detectar zonas con un calentamiento anormal que indiquen un funcionamiento que deberá revisarse.

 

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Land drones applied to three-dimensional modeling and control of complex industrial environments

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Land drones can be armed with different devices such as terrestrial laser scanner, obstacle detectors or remote control systems, in order to provide accurate 3D models of unattended or critical environments in a safe way.

Environments like narrow caves that are difficult to access, electrical substations where there are risk of electric shock, boiler rooms or buildings with structural problems are considered critical environments for human operators due to the danger they entail.

Despite being critical spaces, its maintenance, inspection and control are essential to prevent damages and detect breakdowns, so accurate three-dimensional models are indispensable. For this purpose, terrestrial drones allow the integration of terrestrial laser scanners to capture the environment, as well as obstacle detectors and different communication systems, so that they can be autonomous vehicles or remote-controlled vehicles.

Depending on the accuracy needed and the dimensions of the study case, two different  combinations of technologies have been explored, both combining laser scanner with land drones.

To complete this research line, we are working in different methodologies to combine 3D models obtained with land drones and data obtained with aerial drones equipped with conventional cameras or thermo graphic cameras.

Mix both kind of models make the three-dimensional model much more complete and it is possible to detect pathologies in almost everywhere.  Some of this process has been used with success in electrical substations and photovoltaic solar plants, detecting, for example, anomalies in some panels.

 

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Ingeniero del grupo TIDOP

Daniel Barrio Aguilera

Titulado el primero de su promoción como Técnico Superior en Sistemas de Telecomunicaciones e Informáticos en 2018 por el IES Vasco de la Zarza. Consiguió la titulación de Cisco “CCNA Routing and Switching” con carta de recomendación del CEO de Cisco gracias a la demostración de sus habilidades y conocimientos en el campo de las redes informáticas con equipo Cisco. Actualmente estudiando un Ciclo Formativo de Grado Superior en Desarrollo de Aplicaciones Multiplataforma en el IES Alonso de Madrigal, enfocándose en la programación y desarrollo de aplicaciones informáticas.

Líneas de investigación:

  • Desarrollo de apliaciones geotecnologicas
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TIDOP Engineering

Daniel Barrio Aguilera

Titled the first of his promotion as Senior Technician in Telecommunications and Computer Systems in 2018 by the IES Vasco de la Zarza. He obtained the Cisco degree “CCNA Routing and Switching” with a letter of recommendation from the Cisco CEO thanks to his skills and knowledge shown in the field of computer networks with Cisco equipment. Currently he is studying a Superior Degree Formative Cycle in Multiplatform Applications Development at the IES Alonso de Madrigal, focusing on the programming and development of computer applications.

Research lines:

  • Development of geomatic applications
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Miembro del grupo TIDOP

Damián Ortega Terol

PhD en Geotecnologías Aplicadas a la Construcción, Energía e Industria (2018, Universidades de Salamanca y Vigo) con mención “cum laude” tras la finalización de su tesis doctoral titulada: “Innovación en el desarrollo de herramientas basadas en software libre para la explotación de imágenes aéreas y espaciales adquiridas con sensores de última generación”. Completa su formación académica con las titulaciones del graduado en Ingeniería Geomática y Topografía (2013, Universidad de Salamanca), Master Universitario en Geotecnologías Cartográficas en Ingeniería y Arquitectura (2011, Universidades de Salamanca y Valladolid), Ingeniero en Geodesia y Cartografía (2001, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia) e Ingeniero Técnico en Topografía (1998, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia). Posee una amplia experiencia en la programación de herramientas geomáticas basadas en software libre desarrollada en los diferentes puestos que ha ocupado: empresa pública Tragsatec (2001-2008), funcionario grupo A1 de la Escala de Técnicos Facultativos Superiores de los OOAA del Ministerio de Medio Ambiente (2008-2016) y en su reciente incorporación como funcionario de carrera en el Instituto Geográfico Nacional del Ministerio de Fomento (2016-actualidad).

Líneas de investigación:

  • Desarrollo de herramientas geomáticas basadas en software libre relacionadas con Sistemas de Información Geográfica, explotación de datos de Observación de la Tierra y Gestión Integrada de Recursos Hídricos.
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TIDOP Member

Damián Ortega Terol

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Research lines:

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