The TIDOP research group of USAL is working on a 3D energetic map of cities.

The Information Technology for Heritage Documentation Group works in a national project that can be used in the energetic rating of buildings.

The TIDOP research groupThe Tidop, Information Technology for Heritage Documentation Group directed by Professor Diego González Aguilera, takes part in the national project Ensmart, designed to develop the three-dimensional energetic mapping of cities.

“The truth is that one of the largest energy losses is in the housing sector, especially on older or public buildings,” Professor González Aguilera begins to explain why the project. “And the project try to diagnose energy loss as facades or roofs concerns”, says that is the first objective of the work.

Thus, the information obtained from the three-dimensional energy map “will be used for the development of the energy rating through authorized by the Institute for Diversification and Saving of Energy (IDEA) programs,” explains González Aguilera.

At this stage of program development in which TIDOP, the University of Vigo and three companies are working together, has taken an important step to have three vehicles specially equipped for data collection of the thermal envelope of buildings, one of which runs through the city streets while the other two take pictures from the air.

They do this through photographic and thermal cameras whose works are spectacular on paper and be derived to a table of heat loss from buildings. “So we can quantify the problems, check if you spend more than you should and decide how they will act if placing double windows, new insulation …” explains González Aguilera the most practical part of the program.

They do this through photographic and thermal cameras whose works are spectacular on paper and be derived to a table of heat loss from buildings. “So we can quantify the problems, check if you spend more than you should and decide how they will act if placing double windows, new insulation …” explains González Aguilera the most practical part of the program.

The TIDOP research group

‘Forensic PW’: a revolution in crime scenes reconstruction.

A team of Usal develops a software that allows to recreate in 3D what happened in any type of accident. The project has received the Research Award Spanish Police Foundation.

Digital recreation of the crime scene

Forensic PWThe use of new technologies to automate and upgrade many professions is a constant in recent years, even more since the advent of the smartphone and tablets. With the aim of facilitating the tasks to be performed many projects and initiatives arise, as is the case for ‘Forensic PW’. This software designed by a group of researchers from the University of Salamanca try simplify and cheapen the reconstruction of the scene of an incident, accident or crime simply by using photographs. “From several images of the place we can replicate what happened in three dimensions”, says Diego González Aguilera, professor who led the project. Unlike computer systems used so far-computational techniques or laser formats-, the revolutionary design “is automatic, objective and flexible.” In addition, the project combines the quality of numerical methods of photogrammetry to the speed of the algorithms from computer vision. The revolutionary initiative has been honored this week with the Spanish Police Foundation Award for Research, endowed with 20,000 euros. “We are very pleased with this distinction because it helps us to continue working to improve the software,” he says.

This system “totally low cost” lets you use photos from any camera, including mobile phones, facilitating its use. Thus, the ‘Forensic PW’ collects images from multiple views and then ‘position the point from which the photographs were taken “and provides dimensional analysis of the place.” We’re getting for each pixel in the image a three-dimensional point to settle’ says González Aguilera. This system is intended as a complementary tool when debugging responsibilities after an accident, or for know the manner in which a crime was committed. The professor recognizes that the product has been “tested” by the Scientific Police, and the idea is that researchers ‘use it’. But they claim that “everything is really alive” and they expect to increase their performance with the prize received. After two years of work, the next step is to ‘make the leap’ to new mobile devices and to enable images “to upload to the cloud” to be shared and downloaded faster. A new way to solve the mysteries that escape the eyes of the police investigators.

Forensic PW

The TIDOP group works on an augmented reality system to maintain military air fleet.

A delegation of the study of Salamanca, part of the University of Salamanca, visited the prestigious Brazilian institution to lay the foundation of several common projects.

The TIDOP groupThe research group on Information Technologies for 3D Object Digitization (TIDOP), University of Salamanca, leaded by Professor Diego González Aguilera, participates in a project of augmented reality that would improve and save maintenance costs of military aircraft fleet. The SICEMAM project, which are working together ITP (Turbo Propellers Industry) and TIDOP research group at the University of Salamanca, advised by the Logistics Support Command of the Air Force, was already able to obtain three-dimensional models two specific maintenance tasks (brakes package and landing gate) of an F-18 from the data collection with different capture systems. The objective of this project is the design and development of an intelligent system to assist in the decision making and support of military aircraft. His modeling, assembly and incorporation into a system of virtual and augmented reality provides an ideal training environment to disassemble these studied cases for maintenance workers.

Started in 2013, the project SICEMAM offers not only a way to facilitate the maintenance of aircraft through the use of augmented reality, but also, through data acquisition by different recording equipment, which would include photogrametry or computer vision, it could save costs. After successful tests developed in “Albacete Air Arsenal” with two case studies of an F-18, along this year and 2015 efforts will focus on developing their own interface and immersive augmented reality system. This would allow recognition of real component, assistance and real-time tutoring and motion detection by the system.

After the final stage of development and the results report, this new system could be market-driven, with very useful not only for the maintenance and repair of military aircraft, but also civilian applications and even in the automotive field.
The project has a budget of 2.5 million and is funded by the Ministry of Science and Innovation and the European Union through the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF).

TIDOP research group

The research unit TIDOP (Information Technology for 3D scanning of complex objects) leaded by Diego González Aguilera, belongs to the Department of Land and Cartography of the University of Salamanca.
It is composed of multidisciplinary staff with diverse backgrounds: geomatic and surveying engineers, geodesy and cartography engineers, civil engineers, industrial engineers, computer ingeniers and architects dedicated to developing computer systems in engineering and architectural applications.

The TIDOP group

Reconstruct the crime scene in three dimensions.

• The University of Salamanca creates a ‘software’ to transfer to 3D the pictures taken with current cameras.
• It has been awarded for his research by the Police.

TIDOP Research Group, led by Professor of the University of Salamanca Diego González Aguilera, created the software Fibres- Forensic Image-based reconstruction system- which allows transfer to 3D format photographs taken with conventional cameras. The system allows the reconstruction of real scenes from the union of different photographs following a protocol which involves a processing that makes a server at a time depending on the number of images and their resolution. Four or five can be processed in minutes.

Useful for law enforcement

Reconstruct the crime sceneThe group of the University of Salamanca has been working on technologies applied to the reconstruction of real scenes over ten years, which is especially useful in fields such as engineering and architecture. Now, they try to market their program, something that will certainly be helped by the fact that he received the Research Award of the National Police, a 20,000 euros award that will serve to keep their jobs. The agents evaluated its usefulness for forensic scenarios reconstruction, which at present is done with complex laser cameras that have a high price and, therefore, can not be used in all cases.

3D map of cities

Another line of work of TIDOP is the Ensmart national project for the development of three-dimensional energy mapping of cities, an initiative that has been achieved at the moment, with three specially equipped vehicles for the data collection of the buildings thermal envelope, one of which runs through the city streets while the other two take pictures from the air.

Another line of work of TIDOP is the Ensmart national project for the development of three-dimensional energy mapping of cities, an initiative that has been achieved at the moment, with three specially equipped vehicles for the data collection of the buildings thermal envelope, one of which runs through the city streets while the other two take pictures from the air.

Reconstruct the crime scene

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Análisis termográfico de edificios

 

El uso de la termografía infrarroja comMapaEnergeticoo técnica sobradamente provada para la inspección de edificios y localización de patologías como fugas de aire, humedades, etc. Nos permite realizar un examen visual “in-situ” de calidad de los objetos de estudio gracias a la posibilidad de visualizar en tiempo real los resultados pudiendo detectar sin dificultad los desperfectos o elementos característicos de estos. Estas técnicas de medición cualitativa nos proporcionan la posibilidad de realizar inspecciones rápidas y eficaces sin contacto directo con el objeto y de forma no destructiva, lo que disminuye tanto el riesgo de incidentes para los operarios como los daños producidos en los propios objetos de estudio ocasionados por otras técnicas intrusivas. Además, también se ha demostrado la utilidad de la termografía infrarroja como técnica puramente de medida a través de su utilización para el cálculo de propiedades termofísicas de materiales tales como difusividad y transmitancia térmica.

En el caso de termografía cualitativa, las publicaciones existentes tratan de estudios realizados in-situ, principalmente en edificios históricos o elementos del patrimonio cultural, mientras que los estudios cualitativos se realizan, en la mayor parte de los casos, en laboratorios sobre muestras de tamaño limitado. En aquellos casos en los que se han realizado estudios termográficos cuantitativos sobre edificios in-situ, los valores de temperatura son empleados con el objetivo de obtener propiedades termofísicas (conductancia térmica) reales del cerramiento, sin embargo su distribución espacial no es considerada.

Conjugar ambas aplicaciones permitirá la automatización del cálculo de pérdidas de calor a partir de las temperaturas medidas con una cámara termográfica. De este modo, no solo se usa la termografía para representar el estado de la pared, sino que también se usan los valores de temperatura contenidos en la termografía para la extracción de parámetros métricos del edificio en estudio, por lo que la hibridación de la información termográfica con el material cartográfico de precisión permitiría extraer la geometría real del objeto de estudio con textura termográfica, pudiendo así realizar mediciones precisas de los elementos de interés directamente sobre el resultado obtenido.

 

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Estudios como el publicado por EuroACE en 2010 colocan la mejora de la eficiencia energética en edificación en cabeza de las acciones necesarias para la reducción de emisiones de gases del efecto invernadero y gasto energético, así como para servir de empuje a la generación de empleo. Especial es el caso del parque de edificios ya construidos, la mayoría procedente de los años 1940-80, con normativa inexistente y recursos escasos. En ellos las obras de rehabilitación energética pueden suponer un ahorro de hasta el 75% en consumo de energía. En España existen 13 millones de viviendas susceptibles de intervención, cuya rehabilitación energética supondría una reducción de las emisiones del sector del 34% con respecto al año 2001.

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Building thermographic analysis

 

 

The use of infraMapaEnergeticored thermography as a widely tested technique for building inspection and location of pathologies such as air leakage and moisture allows the performance of  quality “in-situ” visual examination of the objects under study due to the possibility of obtaining real-time results, being able to detect without difficulty damages or material characteristics. This qualitative measurement technique provides the capability of doing quick, effective and non-destructive inspection without direct contact with the object under study, decreasing the risk of incidents to operators and the damage of the objects comparing with other intrusive techniques. Furthermore, the utility of infrared thermography as a measurement technique has been proved by its use for the determination of the thermophysical properties of materials such as diffusivity and thermal transmittance.

In the qualitative approach, some authors have performed in-situ studies, mainly in historical buildings or cultural heritage elements, whereas quantitative studies are performed mainly in laboratories with limited size samples. In those cases where quantitative thermography studies were performed in-situ, temperature values were employed in order to obtain the real thermophysical properties (thermal conductance) of the building envelope, but their spatial distribution is not considered.

Combine both applications will enable the automation of the heat loss computation from the measured temperatures with a thermographic camera. Thus, the thermography is not only used to represent the state of the wall, but also temperature values represented on the thermography for extracting the metric parameters of the study object so the hybridization of the thermographic information with precise cartographic material would  allow to extract the actual geometry of the object of study with thermal texture, being able to make accurate measurements of the elements of interest directly on the obtained results.

 

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Studies such as the one published by EuroACE in 2010, places improved energy efficiency in building construction at the top of the list of actions that need to be taken to reduce greenhouse gases and energy costs, in addition to acting as a stimulus to generate employment. In particular is the case of existing buildings stock, most of which dates back to the period 1940-80, constructed using non-existent standards and scarce resources. Here, energy refurbishment works could represent a saving of up to 75% in energy consumption. In Spain there are 13 million homes that could be the subject of intervention, where energy refurbishment could result in a reduction in sector emissions of 34% compared to 2001.

 

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Mobile Laser System (MLS) applied to urban tree inventory

In urbanized Western Europe trees are considered an important component of the built-up environment. This also means that there is an increasing demand for tree inventories. Laser mobile mapping systems provide an efficient and accurate way to sample the 3D road surrounding including notable roadside trees. In this research line, a processing chain aiming at the extraction of tree locations and tree sizes from laser mobile mapping data is reached.

  • Vegetation extraction

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  • Tree parameter extraction

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Such steps, in combination with code optimization are expected to be sufficient to reach the final goal of automatized estimation of features sampled by mobile mapping at a rate that matches the acquisition speed and at a quality that matches the result of a human operator.

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Miembro del grupo TIDOP

Lloyd A. Courtenay

Graduado en arqueología por la Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Actualmente está acabando un Máster en Arqueología del Cuaternario y Evolución Humana por la Universidad Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona, con el objetivo de seguir con su formación investigadora matriculándose en un programa de Doctorado en prehistoria para el próximo año académico. Habiéndose especializado en el campo de la tafonomía, trabaja principalmente en el estudio microscópico de los restos óseos que aparecen en los yacimientos arqueológicos y paleontológicos. Su principal campo de investigación está dirigido hacia la aplicación de nuevas metodologías en yacimientos del Pleistoceno Inferior Africano. En los últimos años ha emprendido su carrera profesional adaptando los nuevos avances estadísticos en otros campos como la Inteligencia Artificial, buscando maneras de aplicarlos al estudio del registro fósil. Siguiendo esta línea de investigación, ha conseguido desarrollar una serie de algoritmos aplicando métodos de Machine y Deep Learning para el procesado de datos derivados de modelos 3D. Con el diseño de algoritmos complejos como las Redes de Neuronas Artificiales y las Máquinas de Vectores de Soporte, ha desarrollado nuevos modelos estadísticos que pueden distinguir entre la actividad de diferentes carnívoros a través de las marcas de dientes que dejan. Estos modelos permiten también la clasificación de las alteraciones microscópicas halladas como producto de agentes naturales o por el contrario, si fueron consecuencia de las actividades de caza de los antiguos homínidos.

Líneas de investigación:

  • Tafonomía y zooarqueología aplicado al estudio del Pleistoceno Inferior
  • Desarrollo de nuevos métodos para el estudio microscópico de los restos fósiles
  • Diseño y aplicación de nuevos métodos estadísticos en la arqueología, incluyendo la aplicación de técnicas 3D para la documentación de restos óseos, y el uso de algoritmos de Inteligencia Artificial para procesar tales datos
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TIDOP Member

Lloyd A. Courtenay

An Archaeology graduate having studied in the Complutense University of Madrid, he is currently finishing his Master’s degree in Quaternary Archaeology and Human Evolution in the University Rovira I Virgili, Tarragona. Starting next academic year, he intends to continue his professional career by enrolling in a Doctoral programme in prehistory. Specialised in the field of taphonomy, he works primarily on the microscopic study of osteological materials found in archaeological and paleontological sites. His main field of research lies in the development of new methods for the study of Lower Pleistocene sites in Africa. Over the last couple of years, he has focused his research on the adaptation of new statistical advances from other fields of research, such as Artificial Intelligence, with the hope of finding new means of applying these techniques to the prehistoric fossil register. Through this line of research, he has achieved the development of Machine and Deep Learning algorithms for the processing of 3D data. His most notable advances have included the development of Artificial Neural Networks and Support Vector Machines for the differentiation of carnivore activity through the tooth marks animals may leave on bone. He has also achieved models that are able to successfully classify microscopic traces, discerning between natural agents and those produced by ancient hominids in prehistoric butchery practices.

Research lines:

  • Taphonomy and zooarchaeology applied to the Lower Pleistocene
  • Development of new methodological approaches for the study of fossil remains
  • Design and application of new statistical models for archaeological studies, including 3D modelling for the documentation of bone, and the use of Artificial Intelligence algorithms for the processing of this data
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Drones terrestres aplicados al modelizado tridimensional e inspección de infraestructuras críticas y de difícil acceso.

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Equipar drones con sensores láser, detectores de obstáculos y sistemas de control remoto permite obtener de forma segura y fiable los modelos tridimensionales de escenarios críticos, entendiendo como escenarios críticos todos aquellos escenarios en los que una persona correría peligro realizando los trabajos.

Este tipo de escenarios abarcan desde grutas angostas y estrechas a las que es difícil acceder, hasta escenarios industriales complejos, como subestaciones eléctricas, en las que existen riesgos de descargas eléctricas, salas de calderas, edificios con problemas estructurales etc.

A pesar de ser lugares críticos, su mantenimiento e inspección es un aspecto clave en el campo del control preventivo de averías y deformaciones, por lo que obtener el modelo tridimensional de estos lugares es fundamental. En este sentido, los drones terrestres, cada vez más sofisticados, permiten integrar escáner láser terrestre para capturar el entorno, asi como detectores de obstáculos y diferentes sistemas de comunicación, de modo que pueden moverse de forma autónoma o ser teledirigidos de forma remota.

Hasta el momento se ha investigado la integración de drones terrestres y escáner láser utilizando dos metodologías de trabajo diferentes, según el grado de precisión y detalle que se necesite y dependiendo de las dimensiones del espacio en el que se esté trabajando.

 

Finalmente, se está investigando la manera de combinar los modelos tridimensionales obtenidos por los drones terrestres con datos procedentes de drones aéreos equipados con cámaras fotográficas o cámaras termográficas. Combinar ambos modelos es esencial para obtener una cobertura total de la escena de estudio y poder detectar anomalías en cualquier lugar. Ésta línea de acción se está introduciendo para controlar subestaciones eléctricas y plantas solares fotovoltaicas ya que en ambos casos es posible detectar zonas con un calentamiento anormal que indiquen un funcionamiento que deberá revisarse.

 

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Land drones applied to three-dimensional modeling and control of complex industrial environments

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Land drones can be armed with different devices such as terrestrial laser scanner, obstacle detectors or remote control systems, in order to provide accurate 3D models of unattended or critical environments in a safe way.

Environments like narrow caves that are difficult to access, electrical substations where there are risk of electric shock, boiler rooms or buildings with structural problems are considered critical environments for human operators due to the danger they entail.

Despite being critical spaces, its maintenance, inspection and control are essential to prevent damages and detect breakdowns, so accurate three-dimensional models are indispensable. For this purpose, terrestrial drones allow the integration of terrestrial laser scanners to capture the environment, as well as obstacle detectors and different communication systems, so that they can be autonomous vehicles or remote-controlled vehicles.

Depending on the accuracy needed and the dimensions of the study case, two different  combinations of technologies have been explored, both combining laser scanner with land drones.

To complete this research line, we are working in different methodologies to combine 3D models obtained with land drones and data obtained with aerial drones equipped with conventional cameras or thermo graphic cameras.

Mix both kind of models make the three-dimensional model much more complete and it is possible to detect pathologies in almost everywhere.  Some of this process has been used with success in electrical substations and photovoltaic solar plants, detecting, for example, anomalies in some panels.

 

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Ingeniero del grupo TIDOP

Daniel Barrio Aguilera

Titulado el primero de su promoción como Técnico Superior en Sistemas de Telecomunicaciones e Informáticos en 2018 por el IES Vasco de la Zarza. Consiguió la titulación de Cisco “CCNA Routing and Switching” con carta de recomendación del CEO de Cisco gracias a la demostración de sus habilidades y conocimientos en el campo de las redes informáticas con equipo Cisco. Actualmente estudiando un Ciclo Formativo de Grado Superior en Desarrollo de Aplicaciones Multiplataforma en el IES Alonso de Madrigal, enfocándose en la programación y desarrollo de aplicaciones informáticas.

Líneas de investigación:

  • Desarrollo de apliaciones geotecnologicas
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TIDOP Engineering

Daniel Barrio Aguilera

Titled the first of his promotion as Senior Technician in Telecommunications and Computer Systems in 2018 by the IES Vasco de la Zarza. He obtained the Cisco degree “CCNA Routing and Switching” with a letter of recommendation from the Cisco CEO thanks to his skills and knowledge shown in the field of computer networks with Cisco equipment. Currently he is studying a Superior Degree Formative Cycle in Multiplatform Applications Development at the IES Alonso de Madrigal, focusing on the programming and development of computer applications.

Research lines:

  • Development of geomatic applications
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Miembro del grupo TIDOP

Damián Ortega Terol

PhD en Geotecnologías Aplicadas a la Construcción, Energía e Industria (2018, Universidades de Salamanca y Vigo) con mención “cum laude” tras la finalización de su tesis doctoral titulada: “Innovación en el desarrollo de herramientas basadas en software libre para la explotación de imágenes aéreas y espaciales adquiridas con sensores de última generación”. Completa su formación académica con las titulaciones del graduado en Ingeniería Geomática y Topografía (2013, Universidad de Salamanca), Master Universitario en Geotecnologías Cartográficas en Ingeniería y Arquitectura (2011, Universidades de Salamanca y Valladolid), Ingeniero en Geodesia y Cartografía (2001, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia) e Ingeniero Técnico en Topografía (1998, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia). Posee una amplia experiencia en la programación de herramientas geomáticas basadas en software libre desarrollada en los diferentes puestos que ha ocupado: empresa pública Tragsatec (2001-2008), funcionario grupo A1 de la Escala de Técnicos Facultativos Superiores de los OOAA del Ministerio de Medio Ambiente (2008-2016) y en su reciente incorporación como funcionario de carrera en el Instituto Geográfico Nacional del Ministerio de Fomento (2016-actualidad).

Líneas de investigación:

  • Desarrollo de herramientas geomáticas basadas en software libre relacionadas con Sistemas de Información Geográfica, explotación de datos de Observación de la Tierra y Gestión Integrada de Recursos Hídricos.
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TIDOP Member

Damián Ortega Terol

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Research lines:

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