A PhD dissertation from the University of Salamanca (Spain) seeks to improve agroforestry productivity.

Can the productivity be improved at agroforestry field by low-cost and non-invasive techniques and securing a sustainable development? Yes, it can. It has  been demonstrated by Monica Herrero Huerta, PhD from the Polytechnic University of Avila (Spain), who opted for photogrammetric techniques to develop a work which earned Cum Laude “for its innovative challenge, properly raised under a clearly scientific vision” and with collaborations between Tidop group from the University of Salamanca (Spain), the Institute of Regional Development from Castilla-La Mancha (Spain) and the Remote Sensing Laboratory from the Technical University of Delft (The Netherlands), where currently Herrero develops her work as a researcher.

“The discussed issues were focused on the progress of the crop quality, the prediction of the yield, data integration to advance in forest  monitoring and the extraction of biological parameters of the vegetation in real time “, the doctor says.

As she recognized, “since the last decade of the twentieth century, research lines on the applicability of Geotechnology to Agroforestry Engineering have been developed, in order to optimize the agroforestry, environmental and economic management”. In this case, these research lines were focused on photogrammetry, a technique well-known in Avila campus and, according to the doctor, numerous information is available concerning to field monitoring, helping in decision making and traceability needs and represent an improvement in the intrinsic quality of the agricultural and forestry obtained products.


Within the various methodologies used, Herrero emphasizes in the multispectral aerial photogrammetry to agronomic analysis, “low-cost and close range by paramotor over large areas of crops” and she could develop on an experimental farm in Albacete (Spain).

As it regards terrestrial photogrammetry to estimate the agricultural production, she also talks about a methodology “low cost and close range by reflex and compact cameras”. In this case, the experiment was carried out in a vineyard of Logroño (Spain) in which thanks to this technology, different production variables associated to each cluster were estimated. Ideal, for example, to plan the harvest.

Moreover, the thesis had its space for aerial photogrammetry for forest management, “low-cost and close range photogrammetry by paramotor over large extensions of forest applied to forestry inventory”. She could develop this study in Albacete (Spain), over a Pinus nigra area.

And finally, the work also analysed Mobile LiDAR data, for direct applications in the urban tree inventory in real time.  This study considers the automated extraction in a large scale of tree parameters through a system laser  mobile mapping” she explains.

Original article at PhD dissertation in agronomy.

New published on 10/24/2016

In ten years, Spain will have serious problems: Engineers will not exist


The Director of the Cartographic and Land Engineering Department of the University of Salamanca, Diego González Aguilera, is one of the most prestigious researchers at that University. He also leader the TIDOP Research Group specialized in Photogrammetry and Computer Vision.  That Group consists of scientist from various disciplines, from civil engineers or architects to engineers in geomatics. This line-up of the team allows the generation of 3D models that can be used for other sectors to enhance the final product obtained.

Nowadays, TIDOP Research Group has achieved some interesting results in different fields. For example, regarding the road accident field they are working on a system capable of 3D reconstructing accident scenes, allowing an accurate evaluation of the different parameters involved. Another interesting study relating with the Heritage field is the creation of predictive models on which possible pathological processes of our monuments can be predicted and evaluated.

In an interview with Antonio Casillas, Diego discussed the future of engineering in Spain. Diego said that in about 10 year, Spain will have serious problems with its engineers. Countries as USA are undergoing this problem using engineers from other countries such as, for example, Spain.

Diego has witnessed this problem at first hand. Recently, he has been part of an evaluation committee at the Polytechnic University of Madrid (considered one of the most important universities in Spain), where he observed the great decline of enrolments: “from 250 to 50 new enrolments in the civil engineering degree”, says Diego.

From his own experience, Diego believes that the problem comes from the secondary education. Companies as BQ, show robots in secondary classes to motivate their students to study an engineering.

For more information, please consult the interview with Diego González Aguilera.

New published on 09/10/2016

Bound to map study


In spite of his 33 years, Pablo Rodríguez González (Mieres-Asturias, 1983) has a wide and recognize research and academic career. Although his close relatives have always been connected with the mining field. Pablo took his Bachelor degree in surveying engineering in 2004 from Oviedo University. Later, in 2006, he received his Master degree in Geodesy and Cartography. Obtaining two First National End of Degree Awards.

Nowadays, Pablo is a post-doctoral research at University of Salamanca and member of the Research Unit TIDOP (Geomatics Technologies for the 3D digitalization and modelling of complex objects). Linked to this group from his pre-doctoral stage, Pablo wrote his PhD thesis, entitled “Automatización en el procesamiento de datos adquiridos mediante laser escáner 3D”. Receiving his third First National End of Degree Award.

Since then, he has been visiting different National and International Universities. Highlighting a research centre in Trento (Italy): the Research Unit 3DOM (https://3dom.fbk.eu/). There, Pablo participated in a European research project. Using UAV platforms to digitalize First World War cultural heritage elements.

Pablo is co-author of several research publications in international journals. Also, he has participated in fiveteen research project. One of them the European project CTH2 (Cultural Heritage Through Time).

Nowadays, Pablo is working on a research line that tries to hybridize the data provided by different cameras (RGB and thermographic cameras). Said approach allows the generation of 3D models. Enabling the detection of pathologies, thermal breaks, etc.

It is also noteworthy that Pablo is author of eight patents in different fields (Forensic, Photogrammetry and Industry) as well as the winner of an education prize granted by the most prestigious organization into the geomatic field: the ISPRS. Regarding this prize, Pablo and other researchers developed an educational software able to pass from 2D digital images to 3D models. Nowadays, said work, still lives. Involving several Universities (Salamanca, Bologna and FBK) under the name GRAPHOS (http://tidop.usal.es/software). This program comes to helping users to reconstruct object in 3D requiring only a device able to take images (mobile phone, tablet, digital camera, etc.)

Pablo expresses his intention to continue with his academic career, if possible, in Ávila. Boosting the Campus of this city.

New published on 07/18/2016

The research group TIDOP receives 3 Juan de la Cierva postdoctoral contracts

The research group TIDOP, located in High Polytechnic School of Avila, has received a total of 3 postdoctoral contracts (Juan de la Cierva). One of them in the formation and two in the incorporation modality.  Particularly noteworthy are the contracts obtained by Pablo Rodríguez Gonzálvez and  Susana Lagüela López, considering that the  number of contracts offered were only four (in the Engineering and Architecture field). The other contract has been for  Lucía Díaz Vilariño. These contracts choose those PhD researchers with a brilliant curriculum and career, where the scientific production, the mobility, as well as the technology transfers are one of the aspects evaluated.

The new supposes a fact of the wide scientific production (publications, research projects, contract agreements and technology transfer) carried out by TIDOP. These contracts also confirms the potentially and capabilities that can offer the Land Engineering (particularly the Geomatic) in our lives.

According to Diego González Aguilera, head of the group, these contracts are a recognition of the excellent research career . Now, the laureate researchers have two year ahead to carry out yours research works. Is in this framework where the Universities try to incorporate them into the University. During the contract, the researchers are going to develop research activities as well as university teaching.

  • Pablo Rodríguez Gonzálvez: obtained a Bachelor degree in surveying engineering in 2004 and a Master degree in geodesy and cartography in 2006. He received two First National End of Degrees Award for both degrees. He obtained his PhD in 2011, from Salamanca University, for which received an Extraordinary PhD award. He is involved in UAV, LiDAR researching and applications of TLS and gaming sensors to engineering and architecture. Author of more than 50 articles.
  • Susan Lagüela López: Mining Engineer (2009) , where she also received her MSc in Environmental Engineering (2010). She obtained her PhD with international mention in 3D thermography in 2014 at the University of Vigo, receiving an Extraordinary PhD Award. Author of more than 30 papers and conference contributions, she received the Prize to Young Researchers in New Technologies from the Council of Pontevedra, Spain (2011), and the Prize “Ermanno Grinzato to Researchers Under 30” from the International Conference in Thermography, AITA2013.
  • Lucía Díaz Villarino: Doctor in agronomic engineering. Her main research interest are focused on the Geomatic, Cartography and Geographical Information Systems. Co-author of mor than 15 publications, she has take part in mora that six research projects and eleven contract agreements. She has several research stays.
New published on 07/04/2016
Página 10 de 17« Primera...5...89101112...15...Última »
Análisis termográfico de edificios


El uso de la termografía infrarroja comMapaEnergeticoo técnica sobradamente provada para la inspección de edificios y localización de patologías como fugas de aire, humedades, etc. Nos permite realizar un examen visual “in-situ” de calidad de los objetos de estudio gracias a la posibilidad de visualizar en tiempo real los resultados pudiendo detectar sin dificultad los desperfectos o elementos característicos de estos. Estas técnicas de medición cualitativa nos proporcionan la posibilidad de realizar inspecciones rápidas y eficaces sin contacto directo con el objeto y de forma no destructiva, lo que disminuye tanto el riesgo de incidentes para los operarios como los daños producidos en los propios objetos de estudio ocasionados por otras técnicas intrusivas. Además, también se ha demostrado la utilidad de la termografía infrarroja como técnica puramente de medida a través de su utilización para el cálculo de propiedades termofísicas de materiales tales como difusividad y transmitancia térmica.

En el caso de termografía cualitativa, las publicaciones existentes tratan de estudios realizados in-situ, principalmente en edificios históricos o elementos del patrimonio cultural, mientras que los estudios cualitativos se realizan, en la mayor parte de los casos, en laboratorios sobre muestras de tamaño limitado. En aquellos casos en los que se han realizado estudios termográficos cuantitativos sobre edificios in-situ, los valores de temperatura son empleados con el objetivo de obtener propiedades termofísicas (conductancia térmica) reales del cerramiento, sin embargo su distribución espacial no es considerada.

Conjugar ambas aplicaciones permitirá la automatización del cálculo de pérdidas de calor a partir de las temperaturas medidas con una cámara termográfica. De este modo, no solo se usa la termografía para representar el estado de la pared, sino que también se usan los valores de temperatura contenidos en la termografía para la extracción de parámetros métricos del edificio en estudio, por lo que la hibridación de la información termográfica con el material cartográfico de precisión permitiría extraer la geometría real del objeto de estudio con textura termográfica, pudiendo así realizar mediciones precisas de los elementos de interés directamente sobre el resultado obtenido.




Estudios como el publicado por EuroACE en 2010 colocan la mejora de la eficiencia energética en edificación en cabeza de las acciones necesarias para la reducción de emisiones de gases del efecto invernadero y gasto energético, así como para servir de empuje a la generación de empleo. Especial es el caso del parque de edificios ya construidos, la mayoría procedente de los años 1940-80, con normativa inexistente y recursos escasos. En ellos las obras de rehabilitación energética pueden suponer un ahorro de hasta el 75% en consumo de energía. En España existen 13 millones de viviendas susceptibles de intervención, cuya rehabilitación energética supondría una reducción de las emisiones del sector del 34% con respecto al año 2001.

[sketchfab id=”226bcb2b99134d83aa30c412e47ea904″ start=”0″ spin=”” controls=”0″]

Building thermographic analysis



The use of infraMapaEnergeticored thermography as a widely tested technique for building inspection and location of pathologies such as air leakage and moisture allows the performance of  quality “in-situ” visual examination of the objects under study due to the possibility of obtaining real-time results, being able to detect without difficulty damages or material characteristics. This qualitative measurement technique provides the capability of doing quick, effective and non-destructive inspection without direct contact with the object under study, decreasing the risk of incidents to operators and the damage of the objects comparing with other intrusive techniques. Furthermore, the utility of infrared thermography as a measurement technique has been proved by its use for the determination of the thermophysical properties of materials such as diffusivity and thermal transmittance.

In the qualitative approach, some authors have performed in-situ studies, mainly in historical buildings or cultural heritage elements, whereas quantitative studies are performed mainly in laboratories with limited size samples. In those cases where quantitative thermography studies were performed in-situ, temperature values were employed in order to obtain the real thermophysical properties (thermal conductance) of the building envelope, but their spatial distribution is not considered.

Combine both applications will enable the automation of the heat loss computation from the measured temperatures with a thermographic camera. Thus, the thermography is not only used to represent the state of the wall, but also temperature values represented on the thermography for extracting the metric parameters of the study object so the hybridization of the thermographic information with precise cartographic material would  allow to extract the actual geometry of the object of study with thermal texture, being able to make accurate measurements of the elements of interest directly on the obtained results.




Studies such as the one published by EuroACE in 2010, places improved energy efficiency in building construction at the top of the list of actions that need to be taken to reduce greenhouse gases and energy costs, in addition to acting as a stimulus to generate employment. In particular is the case of existing buildings stock, most of which dates back to the period 1940-80, constructed using non-existent standards and scarce resources. Here, energy refurbishment works could represent a saving of up to 75% in energy consumption. In Spain there are 13 million homes that could be the subject of intervention, where energy refurbishment could result in a reduction in sector emissions of 34% compared to 2001.


[sketchfab id=”226bcb2b99134d83aa30c412e47ea904″ start=”0″ spin=”” controls=”0″]

Ventana modal ingles
Ventana modal español
Mobile Laser System (MLS) applied to urban tree inventory

In urbanized Western Europe trees are considered an important component of the built-up environment. This also means that there is an increasing demand for tree inventories. Laser mobile mapping systems provide an efficient and accurate way to sample the 3D road surrounding including notable roadside trees. In this research line, a processing chain aiming at the extraction of tree locations and tree sizes from laser mobile mapping data is reached.

  • Vegetation extraction


  • Tree parameter extraction



Such steps, in combination with code optimization are expected to be sufficient to reach the final goal of automatized estimation of features sampled by mobile mapping at a rate that matches the acquisition speed and at a quality that matches the result of a human operator.

Miembro del grupo TIDOP

Lloyd A. Courtenay

Graduado en arqueología por la Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Actualmente está acabando un Máster en Arqueología del Cuaternario y Evolución Humana por la Universidad Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona, con el objetivo de seguir con su formación investigadora matriculándose en un programa de Doctorado en prehistoria para el próximo año académico. Habiéndose especializado en el campo de la tafonomía, trabaja principalmente en el estudio microscópico de los restos óseos que aparecen en los yacimientos arqueológicos y paleontológicos. Su principal campo de investigación está dirigido hacia la aplicación de nuevas metodologías en yacimientos del Pleistoceno Inferior Africano. En los últimos años ha emprendido su carrera profesional adaptando los nuevos avances estadísticos en otros campos como la Inteligencia Artificial, buscando maneras de aplicarlos al estudio del registro fósil. Siguiendo esta línea de investigación, ha conseguido desarrollar una serie de algoritmos aplicando métodos de Machine y Deep Learning para el procesado de datos derivados de modelos 3D. Con el diseño de algoritmos complejos como las Redes de Neuronas Artificiales y las Máquinas de Vectores de Soporte, ha desarrollado nuevos modelos estadísticos que pueden distinguir entre la actividad de diferentes carnívoros a través de las marcas de dientes que dejan. Estos modelos permiten también la clasificación de las alteraciones microscópicas halladas como producto de agentes naturales o por el contrario, si fueron consecuencia de las actividades de caza de los antiguos homínidos.

Líneas de investigación:

  • Tafonomía y zooarqueología aplicado al estudio del Pleistoceno Inferior
  • Desarrollo de nuevos métodos para el estudio microscópico de los restos fósiles
  • Diseño y aplicación de nuevos métodos estadísticos en la arqueología, incluyendo la aplicación de técnicas 3D para la documentación de restos óseos, y el uso de algoritmos de Inteligencia Artificial para procesar tales datos
TIDOP Member

Lloyd A. Courtenay

An Archaeology graduate having studied in the Complutense University of Madrid, he is currently finishing his Master’s degree in Quaternary Archaeology and Human Evolution in the University Rovira I Virgili, Tarragona. Starting next academic year, he intends to continue his professional career by enrolling in a Doctoral programme in prehistory. Specialised in the field of taphonomy, he works primarily on the microscopic study of osteological materials found in archaeological and paleontological sites. His main field of research lies in the development of new methods for the study of Lower Pleistocene sites in Africa. Over the last couple of years, he has focused his research on the adaptation of new statistical advances from other fields of research, such as Artificial Intelligence, with the hope of finding new means of applying these techniques to the prehistoric fossil register. Through this line of research, he has achieved the development of Machine and Deep Learning algorithms for the processing of 3D data. His most notable advances have included the development of Artificial Neural Networks and Support Vector Machines for the differentiation of carnivore activity through the tooth marks animals may leave on bone. He has also achieved models that are able to successfully classify microscopic traces, discerning between natural agents and those produced by ancient hominids in prehistoric butchery practices.

Research lines:

  • Taphonomy and zooarchaeology applied to the Lower Pleistocene
  • Development of new methodological approaches for the study of fossil remains
  • Design and application of new statistical models for archaeological studies, including 3D modelling for the documentation of bone, and the use of Artificial Intelligence algorithms for the processing of this data
Drones terrestres aplicados al modelizado tridimensional e inspección de infraestructuras críticas y de difícil acceso


Equipar drones con sensores láser, detectores de obstáculos y sistemas de control remoto permite obtener de forma segura y fiable los modelos tridimensionales de escenarios críticos, entendiendo como escenarios críticos todos aquellos escenarios en los que una persona correría peligro realizando los trabajos.

Este tipo de escenarios abarcan desde grutas angostas y estrechas a las que es difícil acceder, hasta escenarios industriales complejos, como subestaciones eléctricas, en las que existen riesgos de descargas eléctricas, salas de calderas, edificios con problemas estructurales etc.

A pesar de ser lugares críticos, su mantenimiento e inspección es un aspecto clave en el campo del control preventivo de averías y deformaciones, por lo que obtener el modelo tridimensional de estos lugares es fundamental. En este sentido, los drones terrestres, cada vez más sofisticados, permiten integrar escáner láser terrestre para capturar el entorno, asi como detectores de obstáculos y diferentes sistemas de comunicación, de modo que pueden moverse de forma autónoma o ser teledirigidos de forma remota.

Hasta el momento se ha investigado la integración de drones terrestres y escáner láser utilizando dos metodologías de trabajo diferentes, según el grado de precisión y detalle que se necesite y dependiendo de las dimensiones del espacio en el que se esté trabajando.


Finalmente, se está investigando la manera de combinar los modelos tridimensionales obtenidos por los drones terrestres con datos procedentes de drones aéreos equipados con cámaras fotográficas o cámaras termográficas. Combinar ambos modelos es esencial para obtener una cobertura total de la escena de estudio y poder detectar anomalías en cualquier lugar. Ésta línea de acción se está introduciendo para controlar subestaciones eléctricas y plantas solares fotovoltaicas ya que en ambos casos es posible detectar zonas con un calentamiento anormal que indiquen un funcionamiento que deberá revisarse.


dron_4 dron_3

Land drones applied to three-dimensional modeling and control of complex industrial environments


Land drones can be armed with different devices such as terrestrial laser scanner, obstacle detectors or remote control systems, in order to provide accurate 3D models of unattended or critical environments in a safe way.

Environments like narrow caves that are difficult to access, electrical substations where there are risk of electric shock, boiler rooms or buildings with structural problems are considered critical environments for human operators due to the danger they entail.

Despite being critical spaces, its maintenance, inspection and control are essential to prevent damages and detect breakdowns, so accurate three-dimensional models are indispensable. For this purpose, terrestrial drones allow the integration of terrestrial laser scanners to capture the environment, as well as obstacle detectors and different communication systems, so that they can be autonomous vehicles or remote-controlled vehicles.

Depending on the accuracy needed and the dimensions of the study case, two different  combinations of technologies have been explored, both combining laser scanner with land drones.

To complete this research line, we are working in different methodologies to combine 3D models obtained with land drones and data obtained with aerial drones equipped with conventional cameras or thermo graphic cameras.

Mix both kind of models make the three-dimensional model much more complete and it is possible to detect pathologies in almost everywhere.  Some of this process has been used with success in electrical substations and photovoltaic solar plants, detecting, for example, anomalies in some panels.


dron_4 dron_3

Ingeniero del grupo TIDOP

Daniel Barrio Aguilera

Titulado el primero de su promoción como Técnico Superior en Sistemas de Telecomunicaciones e Informáticos en 2018 por el IES Vasco de la Zarza. Consiguió la titulación de Cisco “CCNA Routing and Switching” con carta de recomendación del CEO de Cisco gracias a la demostración de sus habilidades y conocimientos en el campo de las redes informáticas con equipo Cisco. Actualmente estudiando un Ciclo Formativo de Grado Superior en Desarrollo de Aplicaciones Multiplataforma en el IES Alonso de Madrigal, enfocándose en la programación y desarrollo de aplicaciones informáticas.

Líneas de investigación:

  • Desarrollo de apliaciones geotecnológicas
  • Diseño, creación y mantenimiento de portales web interactivos
TIDOP Engineering

Daniel Barrio Aguilera

Titled the first of his promotion as Senior Technician in Telecommunications and Computer Systems in 2018 by the IES Vasco de la Zarza. He obtained the Cisco degree “CCNA Routing and Switching” with a letter of recommendation from the Cisco CEO thanks to his skills and knowledge shown in the field of computer networks with Cisco equipment. Currently he is studying a Superior Degree Formative Cycle in Multiplatform Applications Development at the IES Alonso de Madrigal, focusing on the programming and development of computer applications.

Research lines:

  • Development of geomatic applications
  • Design, creation and maintenance of interactive web portals
Miembro del grupo TIDOP

Damián Ortega Terol

PhD en Geotecnologías Aplicadas a la Construcción, Energía e Industria (2018, Universidades de Salamanca y Vigo) con mención “cum laude” tras la finalización de su tesis doctoral titulada: “Innovación en el desarrollo de herramientas basadas en software libre para la explotación de imágenes aéreas y espaciales adquiridas con sensores de última generación”. Completa su formación académica con las titulaciones del graduado en Ingeniería Geomática y Topografía (2013, Universidad de Salamanca), Master Universitario en Geotecnologías Cartográficas en Ingeniería y Arquitectura (2011, Universidades de Salamanca y Valladolid), Ingeniero en Geodesia y Cartografía (2001, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia) e Ingeniero Técnico en Topografía (1998, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia). Posee una amplia experiencia en la programación de herramientas geomáticas basadas en software libre desarrollada en los diferentes puestos que ha ocupado: empresa pública Tragsatec (2001-2008), funcionario grupo A1 de la Escala de Técnicos Facultativos Superiores de los OOAA del Ministerio de Medio Ambiente (2008-2016) y en su reciente incorporación como funcionario de carrera en el Instituto Geográfico Nacional del Ministerio de Fomento (2016-actualidad).

Líneas de investigación:

  • Desarrollo de herramientas geomáticas basadas en software libre relacionadas con Sistemas de Información Geográfica, explotación de datos de Observación de la Tierra y Gestión Integrada de Recursos Hídricos.
TIDOP Member

Damián Ortega Terol


Research lines:

  • .