The back-pack mapping system: a new paradigm for the 3D digitization of historical constructions.

The TIDOP research group is committed to back-pack mapping systems for 3D digitization of complex historical constructions.

One of the keys of preventive conservation in historical constructions is the 3D digitization. This process is often tedious since more conventional technologies such as photogrammetry and laser scanning are used more frequently. In contrast to these techniques, the innovative back-pack mapping technology offers many advantages in the 3D scanning process:

  • Faster data acquisition and higher efficiency than other technologies.
  • Ability to work in closed environments without light such as caves or tunnels.
  • Low post-processing time and automatic obtaining of 3D digital models
  • Greater versatility, being able to embark it on vehicles, photogrammetric poles, etc.

Taking into account the above, the TIDOP research group of the Higher Polytechnic School of Avila (University of Salamanca) is currently working within the framework of the European project HeritageCARE (Conservation and preventive monitoring of the historical and cultural heritage) of the Interreg VB SUDOE competition. This project proposes the development of data acquisition and processing protocols from back-pack mapping systems for the 3D digitization of historical constructions. The results will finally be used for the design of plans, sections and even as a support for the conservation processes in historical constructions.


Seems promising¡. For more information about HeritageCARE project please consult:  HeritageCARE project

Revela-Duero: new open-source tool for irrigation management and crops classification along the Douro Basin.

The research group TIDOP develops a software tool, named Revela-Duero, with the aim of controlling the water used for irrigation purposes in the Douro Basin Confederation, inside the framework of the National Project “Implementation of a system for detecting irrigated areas and crop types along the Douro Basin by analyzing remote sensing scenes”.

This National Project, encouraged by the Douro Basin Confederation, is carried out by the University of Salamanca, represented by its research group TIDOP from the High Polytechnic School of Ávila, in collaboration with the University of Castilla-La Mancha.

The tool, named as Revela Duero, has been developed as an open source that allows to accurately control the use of the water resources in the widest Spanish basin from the space, using the satellites. Both Landsat 8, from NASA, and Sentinel 2, from ESA, are used, but mainly S2 regarding to its higher spatial and temporal resolution, of 10 m over Landsat’s 30 m and every 5 days since the Sentinel 2-B launch on March 7th.


Thereby, this software tool will allow both saving water and fulfilling the monitoring tasks of the fluvial guards, detecting the unauthorized irrigated areas from the data provided by the satellites images, cartographic information compiled by the SIGPAC and several information supplied by the basin organism, fluvial guards and declarations given by the irrigation users. Moreover, it will estimate the water volume consumed and crop type by using the progression of the NDVI curve, which is the normalized difference vegetation index.



For more details please consult: El Mundo new


New approaches for the digitalization of cultural heritage: the 4D analysis

The research unit TIDOP evaluates new solutions for the 4D digitalization of cultural heritage inside the framework of the European project CTH-2

Cultural Heritage Through Time (CTH2) is an international research project leader by the Polytechnic of Milan, where different named universities, among which highlights the University of Salamanca (represented by the research unit TIDOP of the High Polytechnic School of Avila), attempt to develop new methodologies for the digitalization and valorisation of our cultural heritage. Inside the framework of this project, the research unit TIDOP will be focused on the development of a digilitalization methodology able to evaluate the cultural heritage through time. Approach that was applied to one of the emblematic elements that compose one of the most important Spanish constructions: the medieval wall of Avila. The chosen element was the Alcazar gate, where de PhD Belén Jimenez Fernández-Palacios focused part of her PhD Dissertation, entitled: “Planning, Surveying, Modelling and Visualization Techniques in the Field of Cultural Heritage”.

During her investigations, Jimenez deals with the three critical factors for the digitilization of heritage: (i) automation of processes; (ii) generation of dense 3D models of high geometric and radiometric quality and; (iii) the use of low-cost devices. Proposing a methodology able to blend data form different sources (aerial photogrammetry, mobile mapping system and terrestrial laser scanner) in a unique and optimized 3D model. Model which later was used to insert useful information in order to understand the history of the construction as well as to serve as a base for subsequent restoration and dissemination actions.


For more details please consult: CTH2



The TIDOP Research Group 2017 Innovations Award winner for the CRASHMAP Project

crash_ca_1rAccording to the latest consolidated statistics of the National Department of Traffic, 83.115 accidents with victims (deceased, seriously and slightly injured) were registered in the last year. These figures show the volume of interventions, specifically the number of police statement that the State Security Forces perform.

At present, the reconstruction of traffic accidents is carried out based on in situ measurements by the Security Forces and subsequently, when the car has been evicted, by the consulting companies hired by those affected. This process is quite ineffective (requiring road cuts and the access of the agents involves), adds many errors as well as a rather subjective component to the data capture process due to the standardized forms and questions used. In addition, nothing can be corrected once the car has been evicted from the scene. After the data collection and documentation of the accident, the Security Forces generate a report with the geometric data so that the corresponding legal processes can continue.

The CRASHMAP Project, developed by the TIDOP Research Group of the University of Salamanca, establishes a system of 3D reconstruction and analysis of accidents in urban and interurban areas that allows the Security Forces (Local Police and Civil Guard) to support expert reports with accurate and objective data. Thus, the deformation of the vehicle as well as their impact speed are quantified and stored.


Software that allows the 3D reconstruction of traffic accident scenes with metric properties as well as the calculation of the basic parameters associated to these kind of accidents (distances, angles, speeds, paths, etc.).

CRASHMAP consists of:

  • A software (client) that allows: to perform the data collection by images taken with a mobile phone and following a simple protocol (, to upload the images to the cloud, to download the resulting 3D models and to perform the metric and energetic analysis of the accident (impact speeds against vehicles, fixed elements or people)
  • A software (server) located in the cloud that allows the calculation of the smart 3D models remotely. This software has the required algorithms to transform 2D data (images) into 3D data (crashmap).

The software has been used successfully by the Local Police of Salamanca for 2 years and some of the results have already been presented to the Justice Administration as part of the expert reports.

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Análisis termográfico de edificios


El uso de la termografía infrarroja comMapaEnergeticoo técnica sobradamente provada para la inspección de edificios y localización de patologías como fugas de aire, humedades, etc. Nos permite realizar un examen visual “in-situ” de calidad de los objetos de estudio gracias a la posibilidad de visualizar en tiempo real los resultados pudiendo detectar sin dificultad los desperfectos o elementos característicos de estos. Estas técnicas de medición cualitativa nos proporcionan la posibilidad de realizar inspecciones rápidas y eficaces sin contacto directo con el objeto y de forma no destructiva, lo que disminuye tanto el riesgo de incidentes para los operarios como los daños producidos en los propios objetos de estudio ocasionados por otras técnicas intrusivas. Además, también se ha demostrado la utilidad de la termografía infrarroja como técnica puramente de medida a través de su utilización para el cálculo de propiedades termofísicas de materiales tales como difusividad y transmitancia térmica.

En el caso de termografía cualitativa, las publicaciones existentes tratan de estudios realizados in-situ, principalmente en edificios históricos o elementos del patrimonio cultural, mientras que los estudios cualitativos se realizan, en la mayor parte de los casos, en laboratorios sobre muestras de tamaño limitado. En aquellos casos en los que se han realizado estudios termográficos cuantitativos sobre edificios in-situ, los valores de temperatura son empleados con el objetivo de obtener propiedades termofísicas (conductancia térmica) reales del cerramiento, sin embargo su distribución espacial no es considerada.

Conjugar ambas aplicaciones permitirá la automatización del cálculo de pérdidas de calor a partir de las temperaturas medidas con una cámara termográfica. De este modo, no solo se usa la termografía para representar el estado de la pared, sino que también se usan los valores de temperatura contenidos en la termografía para la extracción de parámetros métricos del edificio en estudio, por lo que la hibridación de la información termográfica con el material cartográfico de precisión permitiría extraer la geometría real del objeto de estudio con textura termográfica, pudiendo así realizar mediciones precisas de los elementos de interés directamente sobre el resultado obtenido.




Estudios como el publicado por EuroACE en 2010 colocan la mejora de la eficiencia energética en edificación en cabeza de las acciones necesarias para la reducción de emisiones de gases del efecto invernadero y gasto energético, así como para servir de empuje a la generación de empleo. Especial es el caso del parque de edificios ya construidos, la mayoría procedente de los años 1940-80, con normativa inexistente y recursos escasos. En ellos las obras de rehabilitación energética pueden suponer un ahorro de hasta el 75% en consumo de energía. En España existen 13 millones de viviendas susceptibles de intervención, cuya rehabilitación energética supondría una reducción de las emisiones del sector del 34% con respecto al año 2001.

Building thermographic analysis



The use of infraMapaEnergeticored thermography as a widely tested technique for building inspection and location of pathologies such as air leakage and moisture allows the performance of  quality “in-situ” visual examination of the objects under study due to the possibility of obtaining real-time results, being able to detect without difficulty damages or material characteristics. This qualitative measurement technique provides the capability of doing quick, effective and non-destructive inspection without direct contact with the object under study, decreasing the risk of incidents to operators and the damage of the objects comparing with other intrusive techniques. Furthermore, the utility of infrared thermography as a measurement technique has been proved by its use for the determination of the thermophysical properties of materials such as diffusivity and thermal transmittance.

In the qualitative approach, some authors have performed in-situ studies, mainly in historical buildings or cultural heritage elements, whereas quantitative studies are performed mainly in laboratories with limited size samples. In those cases where quantitative thermography studies were performed in-situ, temperature values were employed in order to obtain the real thermophysical properties (thermal conductance) of the building envelope, but their spatial distribution is not considered.

Combine both applications will enable the automation of the heat loss computation from the measured temperatures with a thermographic camera. Thus, the thermography is not only used to represent the state of the wall, but also temperature values represented on the thermography for extracting the metric parameters of the study object so the hybridization of the thermographic information with precise cartographic material would  allow to extract the actual geometry of the object of study with thermal texture, being able to make accurate measurements of the elements of interest directly on the obtained results.




Studies such as the one published by EuroACE in 2010, places improved energy efficiency in building construction at the top of the list of actions that need to be taken to reduce greenhouse gases and energy costs, in addition to acting as a stimulus to generate employment. In particular is the case of existing buildings stock, most of which dates back to the period 1940-80, constructed using non-existent standards and scarce resources. Here, energy refurbishment works could represent a saving of up to 75% in energy consumption. In Spain there are 13 million homes that could be the subject of intervention, where energy refurbishment could result in a reduction in sector emissions of 34% compared to 2001.


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Mobile Laser System (MLS) applied to urban tree inventory

In urbanized Western Europe trees are considered an important component of the built-up environment. This also means that there is an increasing demand for tree inventories. Laser mobile mapping systems provide an efficient and accurate way to sample the 3D road surrounding including notable roadside trees. In this research line, a processing chain aiming at the extraction of tree locations and tree sizes from laser mobile mapping data is reached.


  • Vegetation extraction


  • Tree parameter extraction



Such steps, in combination with code optimization are expected to be sufficient to reach the final goal of automatized estimation of features sampled by mobile mapping at a rate that matches the acquisition speed and at a quality that matches the result of a human operator.